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Table 4—

Associations between psychosocial factors with the risk over 15 years of follow-up of developing the metabolic syndrome via the WHO, the ATP III, and the IDF clinical criteria

Psychosocial factorsWHOATP IIIIDF
Depressive symptoms    
    Unadjusted 1.43 (1.00–2.03) 1.35 (1.10–1.65) 1.21 (1.01–1.44) 
    Full model 1.27 (0.89–1.80) 1.29 (1.04–1.60) 1.16 (0.96–1.40) 
Trait anger    
    Unadjusted 1.20 (0.88–1.64) 1.32 (1.09–1.58) 1.20 (1.02–1.42) 
    Full model 1.14 (0.84–1.55) 1.30 (1.08–1.57) 1.18 (0.99–1.40) 
Trait anxiety    
    Unadjusted 1.19 (0.85–1.67) 1.06 (0.87–1.29) 1.05 (0.88–1.26) 
    Full model 1.08 (0.76–1.54) 1.07 (0.87–1.32) 1.04 (0.87–1.25) 
Framingham tension    
    Unadjusted 1.25 (0.91–1.71) 1.24 (1.03–1.50) 1.19 (1.00–1.41) 
    Full model 1.19 (0.86–1.64) 1.22 (1.00–1.48) 1.18 (0.99–1.40) 
Perceived stress    
    Unadjusted 1.66 (1.15–2.39) 1.19 (0.97–1.46) 1.12 (0.93–1.34) 
    Full model 1.54 (1.07–2.32) 1.17 (0.95–1.43) 1.09 (0.91–1.30) 
None/mild vs. at least one very severe stressful life event    
    Unadjusted 2.12 (1.06–4.25) 1.49 (1.00–2.23) 1.40 (0.98–2.01) 
    Full model 2.19 (1.08–4.45) 1.51 (1.00–2.27) 1.41 (0.98–2.03) 
Psychosocial factorsWHOATP IIIIDF
Depressive symptoms    
    Unadjusted 1.43 (1.00–2.03) 1.35 (1.10–1.65) 1.21 (1.01–1.44) 
    Full model 1.27 (0.89–1.80) 1.29 (1.04–1.60) 1.16 (0.96–1.40) 
Trait anger    
    Unadjusted 1.20 (0.88–1.64) 1.32 (1.09–1.58) 1.20 (1.02–1.42) 
    Full model 1.14 (0.84–1.55) 1.30 (1.08–1.57) 1.18 (0.99–1.40) 
Trait anxiety    
    Unadjusted 1.19 (0.85–1.67) 1.06 (0.87–1.29) 1.05 (0.88–1.26) 
    Full model 1.08 (0.76–1.54) 1.07 (0.87–1.32) 1.04 (0.87–1.25) 
Framingham tension    
    Unadjusted 1.25 (0.91–1.71) 1.24 (1.03–1.50) 1.19 (1.00–1.41) 
    Full model 1.19 (0.86–1.64) 1.22 (1.00–1.48) 1.18 (0.99–1.40) 
Perceived stress    
    Unadjusted 1.66 (1.15–2.39) 1.19 (0.97–1.46) 1.12 (0.93–1.34) 
    Full model 1.54 (1.07–2.32) 1.17 (0.95–1.43) 1.09 (0.91–1.30) 
None/mild vs. at least one very severe stressful life event    
    Unadjusted 2.12 (1.06–4.25) 1.49 (1.00–2.23) 1.40 (0.98–2.01) 
    Full model 2.19 (1.08–4.45) 1.51 (1.00–2.27) 1.41 (0.98–2.03) 

Data are RR (95% CI), adjusted for age, physical activity, alcohol consumption, current smoking status, use of HRT, and level of education. RR indicates relative risk in Cox proportional hazards model. Psychosocial factors were log-transformed (log + 1 for scales involving 0) where appropriate, and continuous scores were standardized to allow comparability between scales.

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