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Table 2—

RR of cancer according to fasting and postload glucose in quartiles in the Västerbotten Intervention Project, northern Sweden

1 (referent)234Ptrend*
Women      
    All sites      
Fasting glucose (n = 1,428)      
    No cases 270 290 354 514  
    Rate 458 430 473 587  
    RR (95% CI) 0.94 (0.79–1.11) 1.03 (0.87–1.21) 1.26 (1.09–1.47) <0.001 
Postload glucose (n = 1,328)      
    No cases 261 267 345 455  
    Rate 430 460 474 549  
    RR (95% CI) 1.09 (0.92–1.29) 1.11 (0.95–1.31) 1.31 (1.12–1.52) <0.001 
    Breast      
Fasting (n = 510)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.92 (0.70–1.21) 1.03 (0.79–1.34) 1.06 (0.82–1.37) 0.454 
Postload (n = 479)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.93 (0.70–1.24) 1.22 (0.95–1.59) 1.20 (0.93–1.55) 0.069 
    Breast (aged <49 years)      
Fasting (n = 92)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.65 (0.26–1.5) 1.88 (1.0–3.6) 2.13 (1.2–4.1) 0.002 
Postload (n = 88)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.02 (0.50–2.1) 1.86 (1.1–3.5) 1.37 (0.73–2.6) 0.213 
    Breast (aged ≥49 years)      
Fasting (n = 418)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.91 (0.69–1.2) 0.94 (0.72–1.2) 0.90 (0.68–1.2) 0.492 
Postload (n = 391)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.01 (0.75–1.4) 1.08 (0.81–1.4) 1.23 (0.93–1.6) 0.113 
    Ovarian      
Fasting (n = 90)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.39 (0.19–0.78) 0.76 (0.42–1.35) 0.89 (0.52–1.54) 0.824 
Postload (n = 84)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.64 (0.32–1.23) 0.71 (0.38–1.30) 0.94 (0.53–1.65) 0.955 
    Endometrium      
Fasting (n = 117)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.32 (0.73–2.46) 1.16 (0.63–2.17) 1.86 (1.09–3.31) 0.019 
Postload (n = 109)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.37 (0.75–2.57) 0.84 (0.44–1.61) 1.82 (1.07–3.23) 0.028 
Men      
    All sites      
Fasting glucose (n = 1,241)      
    No cases 257 265 289 430  
    Rate 454 436 452 475  
    RR (95% CI) 0.99 (0.83–1.17) 1.02 (0.86–1.21) 1.08 (0.92–1.27) 0.259 
Postload glucose (n = 1,150)      
    No cases 248 246 281 375  
    Rate 477 437 446 458  
    RR (95% CI) 0.93 (0.78–1.11) 0.97 (0.82–1.16) 0.98 (0.84–1.16) 0.992 
    Prostate      
Fasting (n = 458)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.02 (0.77–1.35) 0.97 (0.73–1.29) 0.96 (0.74–1.26) 0.713 
    Postload (n = 425)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.83 (0.62–1.10) 0.71 (0.53–0.95) 0.79 (0.61–1.02) 0.074 
Women and men combined      
    Stomach      
Fasting (n = 71)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.99 (0.42–2.21) 1.36 (0.70–2.73) 1.46 (0.75–2.94) 0.205 
Postload (n = 63)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.53 (0.74–3.22) 1.35 (0.64–2.88) 1.23 (0.59–2.63) 0.717 
    Colon      
Fasting (n = 147)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.95 (0.55–1.62) 0.90 (0.56–1.46) 1.16 (0.74–1.85) 0.470 
Postload (n = 138)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.13 (0.66–1.94) 1.17 (0.70–1.97) 1.23 (0.76–2.03) 0.422 
    Rectum      
Fasting (n = 87)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.18 (0.59–2.32) 0.99 (0.53–1.87) 1.13 (0.62–2.12) 0.782 
Postload (n = 82)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.63 (0.30–1.27) 1.10 (0.61–2.01) 0.90 (0.49–1.66) 0.978 
    Pancreas      
Fasting (n = 62)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.19 (0.47–2.97) 1.11 (0.49–2.59) 2.49 (1.23–5.45) 0.006 
Postload (n = 56)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.42 (0.16–0.97) 0.57 (0.26–1.23) 0.91 (0.47–1.78) 0.910 
    Kidney      
Fasting (n = 44)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.35 (0.46–3.97) 1.49 (0.60–4.02) 2.08 (0.88–5.50) 0.092 
Postload (n = 41)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.40 (0.49–4.27) 1.97 (0.77–5.68) 1.76 (0.69–5.06) 0.247 
    Urinary tract      
Fasting (n = 97)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.05 (0.50–2.20) 1.38 (0.75–2.61) 1.69 (0.95–3.16) 0.049 
Postload (n = 83)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.31 (0.72–2.40) 0.85 (0.43–1.65) 1.18 (0.65–2.17) 0.781 
    Respiratory tract      
Fasting (n = 114)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.08 (0.58–1.98) 0.83 (0.47–1.48) 1.40 (0.85–2.38) 0.178 
Postload (n = 104)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.88 (0.48–1.59) 1.19 (0.68–2.06) 1.13 (0.67–1.94) 0.510 
    Melanoma      
Fasting (n = 92)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.41 (0.66–3.04) 2.14 (1.15–4.24) 2.16 (1.14–4.35) 0.013 
Postload (n = 88)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.16 (0.59–2.30) 1.50 (0.80–2.89) 1.65 (0.89–3.17) 0.086 
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma      
Fasting (n = 89)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.84 (0.42–1.64) 0.99 (0.56–1.77) 0.89 (0.49–1.62) 0.786 
Postload (n = 77)      
    RR (95% CI) 3.06 (1.42–7.35) 3.05 (1.42–7.30) 2.53 (1.16–6.11) 0.081 
1 (referent)234Ptrend*
Women      
    All sites      
Fasting glucose (n = 1,428)      
    No cases 270 290 354 514  
    Rate 458 430 473 587  
    RR (95% CI) 0.94 (0.79–1.11) 1.03 (0.87–1.21) 1.26 (1.09–1.47) <0.001 
Postload glucose (n = 1,328)      
    No cases 261 267 345 455  
    Rate 430 460 474 549  
    RR (95% CI) 1.09 (0.92–1.29) 1.11 (0.95–1.31) 1.31 (1.12–1.52) <0.001 
    Breast      
Fasting (n = 510)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.92 (0.70–1.21) 1.03 (0.79–1.34) 1.06 (0.82–1.37) 0.454 
Postload (n = 479)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.93 (0.70–1.24) 1.22 (0.95–1.59) 1.20 (0.93–1.55) 0.069 
    Breast (aged <49 years)      
Fasting (n = 92)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.65 (0.26–1.5) 1.88 (1.0–3.6) 2.13 (1.2–4.1) 0.002 
Postload (n = 88)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.02 (0.50–2.1) 1.86 (1.1–3.5) 1.37 (0.73–2.6) 0.213 
    Breast (aged ≥49 years)      
Fasting (n = 418)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.91 (0.69–1.2) 0.94 (0.72–1.2) 0.90 (0.68–1.2) 0.492 
Postload (n = 391)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.01 (0.75–1.4) 1.08 (0.81–1.4) 1.23 (0.93–1.6) 0.113 
    Ovarian      
Fasting (n = 90)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.39 (0.19–0.78) 0.76 (0.42–1.35) 0.89 (0.52–1.54) 0.824 
Postload (n = 84)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.64 (0.32–1.23) 0.71 (0.38–1.30) 0.94 (0.53–1.65) 0.955 
    Endometrium      
Fasting (n = 117)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.32 (0.73–2.46) 1.16 (0.63–2.17) 1.86 (1.09–3.31) 0.019 
Postload (n = 109)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.37 (0.75–2.57) 0.84 (0.44–1.61) 1.82 (1.07–3.23) 0.028 
Men      
    All sites      
Fasting glucose (n = 1,241)      
    No cases 257 265 289 430  
    Rate 454 436 452 475  
    RR (95% CI) 0.99 (0.83–1.17) 1.02 (0.86–1.21) 1.08 (0.92–1.27) 0.259 
Postload glucose (n = 1,150)      
    No cases 248 246 281 375  
    Rate 477 437 446 458  
    RR (95% CI) 0.93 (0.78–1.11) 0.97 (0.82–1.16) 0.98 (0.84–1.16) 0.992 
    Prostate      
Fasting (n = 458)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.02 (0.77–1.35) 0.97 (0.73–1.29) 0.96 (0.74–1.26) 0.713 
    Postload (n = 425)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.83 (0.62–1.10) 0.71 (0.53–0.95) 0.79 (0.61–1.02) 0.074 
Women and men combined      
    Stomach      
Fasting (n = 71)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.99 (0.42–2.21) 1.36 (0.70–2.73) 1.46 (0.75–2.94) 0.205 
Postload (n = 63)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.53 (0.74–3.22) 1.35 (0.64–2.88) 1.23 (0.59–2.63) 0.717 
    Colon      
Fasting (n = 147)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.95 (0.55–1.62) 0.90 (0.56–1.46) 1.16 (0.74–1.85) 0.470 
Postload (n = 138)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.13 (0.66–1.94) 1.17 (0.70–1.97) 1.23 (0.76–2.03) 0.422 
    Rectum      
Fasting (n = 87)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.18 (0.59–2.32) 0.99 (0.53–1.87) 1.13 (0.62–2.12) 0.782 
Postload (n = 82)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.63 (0.30–1.27) 1.10 (0.61–2.01) 0.90 (0.49–1.66) 0.978 
    Pancreas      
Fasting (n = 62)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.19 (0.47–2.97) 1.11 (0.49–2.59) 2.49 (1.23–5.45) 0.006 
Postload (n = 56)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.42 (0.16–0.97) 0.57 (0.26–1.23) 0.91 (0.47–1.78) 0.910 
    Kidney      
Fasting (n = 44)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.35 (0.46–3.97) 1.49 (0.60–4.02) 2.08 (0.88–5.50) 0.092 
Postload (n = 41)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.40 (0.49–4.27) 1.97 (0.77–5.68) 1.76 (0.69–5.06) 0.247 
    Urinary tract      
Fasting (n = 97)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.05 (0.50–2.20) 1.38 (0.75–2.61) 1.69 (0.95–3.16) 0.049 
Postload (n = 83)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.31 (0.72–2.40) 0.85 (0.43–1.65) 1.18 (0.65–2.17) 0.781 
    Respiratory tract      
Fasting (n = 114)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.08 (0.58–1.98) 0.83 (0.47–1.48) 1.40 (0.85–2.38) 0.178 
Postload (n = 104)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.88 (0.48–1.59) 1.19 (0.68–2.06) 1.13 (0.67–1.94) 0.510 
    Melanoma      
Fasting (n = 92)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.41 (0.66–3.04) 2.14 (1.15–4.24) 2.16 (1.14–4.35) 0.013 
Postload (n = 88)      
    RR (95% CI) 1.16 (0.59–2.30) 1.50 (0.80–2.89) 1.65 (0.89–3.17) 0.086 
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma      
Fasting (n = 89)      
    RR (95% CI) 0.84 (0.42–1.64) 0.99 (0.56–1.77) 0.89 (0.49–1.62) 0.786 
Postload (n = 77)      
    RR (95% CI) 3.06 (1.42–7.35) 3.05 (1.42–7.30) 2.53 (1.16–6.11) 0.081 
*

Test for trend was performed using class medians as scores.

Directly standardized rate per 100,000 person-years.

Risk ratio estimated from Poisson model with likelihood ratio CIs. Risk was adjusted for age, calendar year, and smoking, by including these covariates into the statistical model.

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