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Table 1—

Baseline characteristics by quintile of DED: EPIC-Norfolk Study

DED quintiles
P value*
12345
DED (kJ/g) 1.04–2.43 2.43–2.78 2.78–3.12 3.12–3.55 3.55–7.97 <0.001 
Age (years) 57.2 ± 8.6 57.9 ± 9.1 58.5 ± 9.3 58.5 ± 9.5 58.6 ± 9.6 0.331 
Weight (kg) 73.4 ± 13.4 73.0 ± 13.0 73.5 ± 13.0 73.4 ± 13.2 73.5 ± 12.9 <0.001 
Height (cm) 165.4 ± 8.8 166.0 ± 9.0 167.0 ± 9.2 167.7 ± 9.3 168.5 ± 9.1 <0.001 
Waist (cm) 87.0 ± 12.5 87.2 ± 12.4 88.1 ± 12.2 88.3 ± 12.2 88.8 ± 12.0 <0.001 
BMI (kg/m226.8 ± 4.1 26.4 ± 3.9 26.3 ± 3.8 26.0 ± 3.8 25.8 ± 3.7 <0.001 
Energy intake (kJ/day) 6,493.0 ± 1,568.4 7,713.2 ± 1,720.7 8,526.5 ± 1,836.5 9,405.6 ± 2,099.5 10,904.8 ± 2,705.9 <0.001 
Fat intake (g/day) 50.0 ± 15.9 65.2 ± 18.2 75.9 ± 20.3 87.3 ± 23.9 106.6 ± 32.2 <0.001 
Energy from fat (%) 29.0 ± 5.8 31.8 ± 5.2 33.5 ± 5.2 34.9 ± 5.0 36.6 ± 5.2 <0.001 
Alcohol (g/day) 10.0 ± 15.7 9.9 ± 14.0 8.7 ± 12.6 7.9 ± 11.3 6.8 ± 9.8 <0.001 
Occupational status      <0.001 
    Professional 305 (7.1) 330.00 (7.7) 303 (7.0) 292 (6.8) 262 (6.1)  
    Managerial and technical 1,709 (39.7) 1,646 (38.3) 1,617 (37.5) 1,540 (35.7) 1,387 (32.3)  
    Skilled nonmanual 683 (15.9) 730 (17.0) 731 (17.0) 683 (15.9) 717 (16.7)  
    Skilled manual 943 (21.9) 910 (21.2) 944 (21.9) 1,048 (24.3) 1,115 (25.9)  
    Partly skilled 525 (12.2) 547.00 (12.7) 548 (12.7) 578 (13.4) 634 (14.7)  
    Unskilled 125 (2.9) 128.00 (3.0) 153 (3.6) 153 (3.6) 173 (4.0)  
Smoking      <0.001 
    Current 610 (14.0) 509 (11.7) 470 (10.8) 494 (11.4) 484 (11.2)  
    Former 1,810 (41.6) 1,785 (41.0) 1,761 (40.5) 1,835 (42.2) 1,718 (39.7)  
    Never 1,935 (44.4) 2,063 (47.4) 2,115 (48.7) 2,016 (46.4) 2,131 (49.2)  
Physical activity      <0.001 
    Inactive 1,235 (28.2) 1,279 (29.2) 1,272 (29.0) 1,272 (29.0) 1,276 (29.1)  
    Moderately inactive 1,313 (30.0) 1,353 (30.9) 1,290 (29.4) 1,246 (28.4) 1,142 (26.1)  
    Moderately active 1,026 (23.4) 981 (22.4) 1,032 (23.5) 1,005 (22.9) 1,029 (23.5)  
    Active 810 (18.5) 771 (17.6) 790 (18.0) 861 (19.6) 935 (21.3)  
Family history of diabetes (yes) 552 (12.6) 535 (12.2) 566 (12.9) 570 (13.0) 522 (11.9) 0.487 
Obesity status      <0.001 
    Normal 1,561 (35.7) 1,708 (39.1) 1,711 (39.1) 1,855 (42.4) 1,867 (42.7)  
    Overweight 2,012 (46) 1,946 (44.5) 2,027 (46.3) 1,922 (43.9) 1,964 (44.9)  
    Obesity 787 (18.0) 706 (16.2) 628 (14.3) 571 (13.1) 510 (11.7)  
DED quintiles
P value*
12345
DED (kJ/g) 1.04–2.43 2.43–2.78 2.78–3.12 3.12–3.55 3.55–7.97 <0.001 
Age (years) 57.2 ± 8.6 57.9 ± 9.1 58.5 ± 9.3 58.5 ± 9.5 58.6 ± 9.6 0.331 
Weight (kg) 73.4 ± 13.4 73.0 ± 13.0 73.5 ± 13.0 73.4 ± 13.2 73.5 ± 12.9 <0.001 
Height (cm) 165.4 ± 8.8 166.0 ± 9.0 167.0 ± 9.2 167.7 ± 9.3 168.5 ± 9.1 <0.001 
Waist (cm) 87.0 ± 12.5 87.2 ± 12.4 88.1 ± 12.2 88.3 ± 12.2 88.8 ± 12.0 <0.001 
BMI (kg/m226.8 ± 4.1 26.4 ± 3.9 26.3 ± 3.8 26.0 ± 3.8 25.8 ± 3.7 <0.001 
Energy intake (kJ/day) 6,493.0 ± 1,568.4 7,713.2 ± 1,720.7 8,526.5 ± 1,836.5 9,405.6 ± 2,099.5 10,904.8 ± 2,705.9 <0.001 
Fat intake (g/day) 50.0 ± 15.9 65.2 ± 18.2 75.9 ± 20.3 87.3 ± 23.9 106.6 ± 32.2 <0.001 
Energy from fat (%) 29.0 ± 5.8 31.8 ± 5.2 33.5 ± 5.2 34.9 ± 5.0 36.6 ± 5.2 <0.001 
Alcohol (g/day) 10.0 ± 15.7 9.9 ± 14.0 8.7 ± 12.6 7.9 ± 11.3 6.8 ± 9.8 <0.001 
Occupational status      <0.001 
    Professional 305 (7.1) 330.00 (7.7) 303 (7.0) 292 (6.8) 262 (6.1)  
    Managerial and technical 1,709 (39.7) 1,646 (38.3) 1,617 (37.5) 1,540 (35.7) 1,387 (32.3)  
    Skilled nonmanual 683 (15.9) 730 (17.0) 731 (17.0) 683 (15.9) 717 (16.7)  
    Skilled manual 943 (21.9) 910 (21.2) 944 (21.9) 1,048 (24.3) 1,115 (25.9)  
    Partly skilled 525 (12.2) 547.00 (12.7) 548 (12.7) 578 (13.4) 634 (14.7)  
    Unskilled 125 (2.9) 128.00 (3.0) 153 (3.6) 153 (3.6) 173 (4.0)  
Smoking      <0.001 
    Current 610 (14.0) 509 (11.7) 470 (10.8) 494 (11.4) 484 (11.2)  
    Former 1,810 (41.6) 1,785 (41.0) 1,761 (40.5) 1,835 (42.2) 1,718 (39.7)  
    Never 1,935 (44.4) 2,063 (47.4) 2,115 (48.7) 2,016 (46.4) 2,131 (49.2)  
Physical activity      <0.001 
    Inactive 1,235 (28.2) 1,279 (29.2) 1,272 (29.0) 1,272 (29.0) 1,276 (29.1)  
    Moderately inactive 1,313 (30.0) 1,353 (30.9) 1,290 (29.4) 1,246 (28.4) 1,142 (26.1)  
    Moderately active 1,026 (23.4) 981 (22.4) 1,032 (23.5) 1,005 (22.9) 1,029 (23.5)  
    Active 810 (18.5) 771 (17.6) 790 (18.0) 861 (19.6) 935 (21.3)  
Family history of diabetes (yes) 552 (12.6) 535 (12.2) 566 (12.9) 570 (13.0) 522 (11.9) 0.487 
Obesity status      <0.001 
    Normal 1,561 (35.7) 1,708 (39.1) 1,711 (39.1) 1,855 (42.4) 1,867 (42.7)  
    Overweight 2,012 (46) 1,946 (44.5) 2,027 (46.3) 1,922 (43.9) 1,964 (44.9)  
    Obesity 787 (18.0) 706 (16.2) 628 (14.3) 571 (13.1) 510 (11.7)  

Data are range, means ± SD, or n (%).

*

P values are from ANOVA for continuous variables and χ2 test for categorical variables.

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