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Table 2—

Association between DED (continuous and quintiles) and risk of type 2 diabetes: EPIC-Norfolk study

DEDP valueDED quintiles
Ptrend
12345
DED (kJ/g) 1.04–7.97  1.04–2.43 2.43–2.78 2.78–3.12 3.12–3.55 3.55–7.97  
    Men 1.30–7.53  1.30–2.55 2.55–2.92 2.92–3.26 3.26–3.70 3.70–7.53  
    Women 1.04–7.97  1.04–2.35 2.35–2.67 2.67–3.00 3.00–3.42 3.42–7.97  
Incident cases 725  135 140 138 143 169  
Model 1 1.12 (1.01–1.25) 0.032 1.00 1.07 (0.83–1.37) 1.05 (0.82–1.35) 1.11 (0.87–1.43) 1.34 (1.05–1.70) 0.022 
Model 2 1.13 (1.01–1.26) 0.028 1.00 1.04 (0.80–1.34) 1.06 (0.82–1.36) 1.10 (0.86–1.42) 1.35 (1.06–1.73) 0.016 
Model 3 1.20 (1.05–1.37) 0.007 1.00 1.10 (0.85–1.42) 1.15 (0.88–1.49) 1.23 (0.93–1.61) 1.58 (1.18–2.12) 0.003 
DEDP valueDED quintiles
Ptrend
12345
DED (kJ/g) 1.04–7.97  1.04–2.43 2.43–2.78 2.78–3.12 3.12–3.55 3.55–7.97  
    Men 1.30–7.53  1.30–2.55 2.55–2.92 2.92–3.26 3.26–3.70 3.70–7.53  
    Women 1.04–7.97  1.04–2.35 2.35–2.67 2.67–3.00 3.00–3.42 3.42–7.97  
Incident cases 725  135 140 138 143 169  
Model 1 1.12 (1.01–1.25) 0.032 1.00 1.07 (0.83–1.37) 1.05 (0.82–1.35) 1.11 (0.87–1.43) 1.34 (1.05–1.70) 0.022 
Model 2 1.13 (1.01–1.26) 0.028 1.00 1.04 (0.80–1.34) 1.06 (0.82–1.36) 1.10 (0.86–1.42) 1.35 (1.06–1.73) 0.016 
Model 3 1.20 (1.05–1.37) 0.007 1.00 1.10 (0.85–1.42) 1.15 (0.88–1.49) 1.23 (0.93–1.61) 1.58 (1.18–2.12) 0.003 

Data are range, n, or ORs (95% CI). Adjustments of covariates were performed using multiple regression analyses by cumulatively adding the following covariates into the model: model 1, age, sex, and baseline BMI; model 2, model 1 plus occupational status, smoking, physical activity, and family history of type 2 diabetes; and model 3, model 2 plus alcohol consumption and total energy intake.

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