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Table 3—

Intake pattern of food groups by quintiles of DED at baseline: EPIC-Norfolk study

DED quintiles
P for trend
12345
Fresh fruit (g/day) 279.6 ± 226.2 256.3 ± 195.4 232.2 ± 171.2 209.2 ± 154.0 186.5 ± 140.9 <0.001 
Dried fruit (g/day) 2.9 ± 8.1 3.2 ± 7.6 3.1 ± 7.4 3.3 ± 7.9 3.3 ± 9.6 0.171 
Vegetables (g/day) 282.5 ± 151.7 283.2 ± 138.2 274.7 ± 125.7 262.6 ± 121.0 251.0 ± 121.1 <0.001 
Meat (g/day) 59.3 ± 34.7 66.0 ± 36.9 68.9 ± 38.4 71.4 ± 42.2 74.8 ± 48.1 <0.001 
Processed meat (g/day) 18.6 ± 15.8 22.2 ± 16.9 25.0 ± 19.7 27.7 ± 21.7 31.4 ± 26.6 <0.001 
Vitamin C (FFQ) (mg/day) 132.9 ± 69.3 131.0 ± 63.1 124.9 ± 56.4 119.6 ± 53.2 112.9 ± 50.7 <0.001 
Non–energy-containing beverages (g/day) 1,343.5 ± 394.6 1,172.9 ± 336.3 1,081.4 ± 328.6 1,003.7 ± 333.5 833.5 ± 380.7 <0.001 
Energy-containing beverages (g/day) 620.6 ± 371.2 620.5 ± 330.4 611.5 ± 300.1 593.5 ± 268.8 557.2 ± 245.6 <0.001 
Soft drinks (g/day)* 25.5 ± 79.6 31.9 ± 79.4 35.6 ± 79.3 38.6 ± 79.5 48.2 ± 82.0 <0.001 
Alcoholic drinks (g/day) 162.0 ± 321.8 148.8 ± 267.5 128.5 ± 227.0 112.7 ± 186.4 94.3 ± 148.9 <0.001 
Total energy intake (kcal) 1,539.0 ± 372.7 1,830.2 ± 408.9 2,024.2 ± 436.3 2,234.1 ± 499.0 2,592.1 ± 643.5 <0.001 
Energy from carbohydrate (%) 50.9 ± 7.5 50.2 ± 6.5 50.0 ± 6.4 49.9 ± 6.2 50.0 ± 6.3 <0.001 
Energy from fat (%) 29.0 ± 5.8 31.8 ± 5.2 33.5 ± 5.2 34.9 ± 5.0 36.6 ± 5.2 <0.001 
Energy from protein (%) 18.7 ± 3.2 17.3 ± 2.8 16.5 ± 2.6 15.7 ± 2.5 14.4 ± 2.6 <0.001 
DED quintiles
P for trend
12345
Fresh fruit (g/day) 279.6 ± 226.2 256.3 ± 195.4 232.2 ± 171.2 209.2 ± 154.0 186.5 ± 140.9 <0.001 
Dried fruit (g/day) 2.9 ± 8.1 3.2 ± 7.6 3.1 ± 7.4 3.3 ± 7.9 3.3 ± 9.6 0.171 
Vegetables (g/day) 282.5 ± 151.7 283.2 ± 138.2 274.7 ± 125.7 262.6 ± 121.0 251.0 ± 121.1 <0.001 
Meat (g/day) 59.3 ± 34.7 66.0 ± 36.9 68.9 ± 38.4 71.4 ± 42.2 74.8 ± 48.1 <0.001 
Processed meat (g/day) 18.6 ± 15.8 22.2 ± 16.9 25.0 ± 19.7 27.7 ± 21.7 31.4 ± 26.6 <0.001 
Vitamin C (FFQ) (mg/day) 132.9 ± 69.3 131.0 ± 63.1 124.9 ± 56.4 119.6 ± 53.2 112.9 ± 50.7 <0.001 
Non–energy-containing beverages (g/day) 1,343.5 ± 394.6 1,172.9 ± 336.3 1,081.4 ± 328.6 1,003.7 ± 333.5 833.5 ± 380.7 <0.001 
Energy-containing beverages (g/day) 620.6 ± 371.2 620.5 ± 330.4 611.5 ± 300.1 593.5 ± 268.8 557.2 ± 245.6 <0.001 
Soft drinks (g/day)* 25.5 ± 79.6 31.9 ± 79.4 35.6 ± 79.3 38.6 ± 79.5 48.2 ± 82.0 <0.001 
Alcoholic drinks (g/day) 162.0 ± 321.8 148.8 ± 267.5 128.5 ± 227.0 112.7 ± 186.4 94.3 ± 148.9 <0.001 
Total energy intake (kcal) 1,539.0 ± 372.7 1,830.2 ± 408.9 2,024.2 ± 436.3 2,234.1 ± 499.0 2,592.1 ± 643.5 <0.001 
Energy from carbohydrate (%) 50.9 ± 7.5 50.2 ± 6.5 50.0 ± 6.4 49.9 ± 6.2 50.0 ± 6.3 <0.001 
Energy from fat (%) 29.0 ± 5.8 31.8 ± 5.2 33.5 ± 5.2 34.9 ± 5.0 36.6 ± 5.2 <0.001 
Energy from protein (%) 18.7 ± 3.2 17.3 ± 2.8 16.5 ± 2.6 15.7 ± 2.5 14.4 ± 2.6 <0.001 

Data are means ± SD. *Soft drinks were defined as fizzy soft drinks plus fruit squash or cordial.

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