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TABLE 1—

Selection of preclinical and clinical studies on EPCs and diabetes complications

ComplicationPreclinical studies (ref.)Clinical studies (ref.)
Vasculopathy Reduced EPC mobilization (19) and EPC-mediated angiogenesis (31) Reduced EPC number and function in parallel with disease severity (12,45); improvement after EPC transplantation (46) 
Cardiomyopathy Myocardial microvascular rarefaction due to VEGF downregulation and decreased EPCs (50) None 
Retinopathy Involvement of EPCs in ocular neovascularization (66) Increased clonogenic potential and differentiation of EPCs (67,68) 
Neuropathy Prevented by EPC administration (74) None 
Nephropathy Involvement of EPCs in glomerular and tubular repair (57) EPC decrease in CKD (53) and restoration with dyalisis and transplantation (54,55) 
Diabetic foot Improvement after EPC administration (44) Wound healing and limb salvage with EPC transplantation (46) 
ComplicationPreclinical studies (ref.)Clinical studies (ref.)
Vasculopathy Reduced EPC mobilization (19) and EPC-mediated angiogenesis (31) Reduced EPC number and function in parallel with disease severity (12,45); improvement after EPC transplantation (46) 
Cardiomyopathy Myocardial microvascular rarefaction due to VEGF downregulation and decreased EPCs (50) None 
Retinopathy Involvement of EPCs in ocular neovascularization (66) Increased clonogenic potential and differentiation of EPCs (67,68) 
Neuropathy Prevented by EPC administration (74) None 
Nephropathy Involvement of EPCs in glomerular and tubular repair (57) EPC decrease in CKD (53) and restoration with dyalisis and transplantation (54,55) 
Diabetic foot Improvement after EPC administration (44) Wound healing and limb salvage with EPC transplantation (46) 
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