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Table 1—

Baseline characteristics in subjects included in the primary analysis

Men
Women
ControlVitamin KP valueControlVitamin KP value
n 62 80  109 104  
Age (years) 69.7 ± 6.2 68.9 ± 5.5 0.45 67.5 ± 5.2 67.3 ± 5.5 0.77 
BMI (kg/m227.0 ± 3.5 28.2 ± 4.7 0.12 26.8 ± 4.9 28.1 ± 5.8 0.07 
Overweight/obese (%)* 74 71 0.70 59 72 0.04 
Total body fat (%) 36.0 ± 9.8 37.8 ± 8.8 0.29 38.3 ± 9.2 36.7 ± 9.8 0.23 
Physical activity scale 136 ± 59 130 ± 65 0.61 123 ± 56 128 ± 55 0.56 
Current smoking (%) 0.24 0.13 
Current alcohol drinking (%) 73 70 0.85 76 70 0.36 
College or greater education (%) 58 68 0.29 47 45 0.89 
Blood pressure medication use (%) 34 21 0.13 29 24 0.44 
Statin use (%) 29 20 0.24 24 24 1.00 
Undercarboxylated osteocalcin (%) 39.9 ± 15.2 36.7 ± 15.5 0.23 42.3 ± 17.4 43.5 ± 16.2 0.62 
Plasma phylloquinone (nmol/l) 1.1 ± 2 1.3 ± 1.6 0.21 1.2 ± 1.1 1.1 ± 1.4 0.37 
Phylloquinone intake (μg/day) 168 ± 114 176 ± 118 0.68 180.8 ± 113.6 170 ± 96.7 0.81 
Plasma glucose (mg/dl) 95.5 ± 8.1 93.1 ± 9 0.10 92 ± 9.7 93.9 ± 9.9 0.15 
Plasma insulin (μU/ml) 10.5 ± 4.8 10.6 ± 5.7 0.95 10.1 ± 4.7 10.6 ± 5.5 0.78 
HOMA-IR 2.5 ± 1.2 2.5 ± 1.5 0.73 2.3 ± 1.1 2.5 ± 1.4 0.33 
Discontinued taking calcium supplementation (%) 0.75 12 11 0.83 
Discontinued taking multivitamin supplements (%) 0.75 1.00 
Men
Women
ControlVitamin KP valueControlVitamin KP value
n 62 80  109 104  
Age (years) 69.7 ± 6.2 68.9 ± 5.5 0.45 67.5 ± 5.2 67.3 ± 5.5 0.77 
BMI (kg/m227.0 ± 3.5 28.2 ± 4.7 0.12 26.8 ± 4.9 28.1 ± 5.8 0.07 
Overweight/obese (%)* 74 71 0.70 59 72 0.04 
Total body fat (%) 36.0 ± 9.8 37.8 ± 8.8 0.29 38.3 ± 9.2 36.7 ± 9.8 0.23 
Physical activity scale 136 ± 59 130 ± 65 0.61 123 ± 56 128 ± 55 0.56 
Current smoking (%) 0.24 0.13 
Current alcohol drinking (%) 73 70 0.85 76 70 0.36 
College or greater education (%) 58 68 0.29 47 45 0.89 
Blood pressure medication use (%) 34 21 0.13 29 24 0.44 
Statin use (%) 29 20 0.24 24 24 1.00 
Undercarboxylated osteocalcin (%) 39.9 ± 15.2 36.7 ± 15.5 0.23 42.3 ± 17.4 43.5 ± 16.2 0.62 
Plasma phylloquinone (nmol/l) 1.1 ± 2 1.3 ± 1.6 0.21 1.2 ± 1.1 1.1 ± 1.4 0.37 
Phylloquinone intake (μg/day) 168 ± 114 176 ± 118 0.68 180.8 ± 113.6 170 ± 96.7 0.81 
Plasma glucose (mg/dl) 95.5 ± 8.1 93.1 ± 9 0.10 92 ± 9.7 93.9 ± 9.9 0.15 
Plasma insulin (μU/ml) 10.5 ± 4.8 10.6 ± 5.7 0.95 10.1 ± 4.7 10.6 ± 5.5 0.78 
HOMA-IR 2.5 ± 1.2 2.5 ± 1.5 0.73 2.3 ± 1.1 2.5 ± 1.4 0.33 
Discontinued taking calcium supplementation (%) 0.75 12 11 0.83 
Discontinued taking multivitamin supplements (%) 0.75 1.00 

Data are means ± SD or % for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. For statistical analysis, logarithm transformation was performed for plasma insulin, HOMA-IR, plasma phylloquinone, and phylloquinone intakes. Phylloquinone intake included both dietary and supplemental sources of phylloquinone.

*

Defined as BMI >25 kg/m2.

The physical activity scale was calculated on the basis of the questionnaire that captures leisure, household, and occupational activity (14). Higher scores indicate more physically active condition.

Discontinued taking calcium and vitamin D supplementation.

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