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Table 2—

Changes for HOMA-IR, fasting plasma insulin, and glucose concentrations for vitamin K and non–vitamin K supplementation

Outcomes and changeModelMen
Women
ControlVitamin KP valueControlVitamin KP value
n  62 80  109 104  
HOMA-IR        
    6 months Crude 0.02 (−0.22 to 0.25) 0.06 (−0.15 to 0.27) 0.77 −0.03 (−0.19 to 0.14) 0.04 (−0.13 to 0.20) 0.61 
    6 months Adjusted 0.03 (−0.21 to 0.27) 0.05 (−0.16 to 0.26) 0.91 −0.01 (−0.17 to 0.15) 0.02 (−0.14 to 0.19) 0.76 
    36 months Crude 0.35 (0.03 to 0.68) −0.09 (−0.37 to 0.20) 0.05 0.16 (−0.04 to 0.37) 0.31 (0.10 to 0.52) 0.32 
    36 months Adjusted 0.39 (0.09 to 0.69) −0.12 (−0.38 to 0.15) 0.01 0.19 (0.00 to 0.38) 0.28 (0.09 to 0.48) 0.49 
Plasma insulin (μU/ml)        
    6 months Crude −0.34 (−1.27 to 0.59) −0.2 (−1.02 to 0.63) 0.82 −0.68 (−1.34 to −0.03) −0.19 (−0.86 to 0.48) 0.30 
    6 months Adjusted −0.29 (−1.22 to 0.65) −0.23 (−1.06 to 0.59) 0.93 −0.60 (−1.24 to 0.04) −0.28 (−0.93 to 0.38) 0.49 
    36 months Crude 1.08 (−0.15 to 2.30) −0.43 (−1.51 to 0.64) 0.07 0.23 (−0.50 to 0.97) 1.08 (0.33 to 1.83) 0.12 
    36 months Adjusted 1.16 (0.02 to 2.30) −0.49 (−1.50 to 0.51) 0.04 0.37 (−0.32 to 1.06) 0.94 (0.23 to 1.64) 0.26 
Plasma glucose (mg/dl)        
    6 months Crude 3.41 (1.79 to 5.04) 3.52 (2.09 to 4.96) 0.92 2.28 (0.80 to 3.75) 2.31 (0.80 to 3.82) 0.97 
    6 months Adjusted 3.70 (2.08 to 5.32) 3.30 (1.87 to 4.72) 0.72 2.43 (0.98 to 3.88) 2.16 (0.67 to 3.64) 0.80 
    36 months Crude 2.15 (0.20 to 4.10) 0.98 (−0.75 to 2.72) 0.38 1.51 (−0.04 to 3.05) 1.33 (−0.24 to 2.91) 0.88 
    36 months Adjusted 2.57 (0.70 to 4.44) 0.65 (−1.01 to 2.31) 0.14 1.68 (0.17 to 3.18) 1.16 (−0.38 to 2.69) 0.64 
Outcomes and changeModelMen
Women
ControlVitamin KP valueControlVitamin KP value
n  62 80  109 104  
HOMA-IR        
    6 months Crude 0.02 (−0.22 to 0.25) 0.06 (−0.15 to 0.27) 0.77 −0.03 (−0.19 to 0.14) 0.04 (−0.13 to 0.20) 0.61 
    6 months Adjusted 0.03 (−0.21 to 0.27) 0.05 (−0.16 to 0.26) 0.91 −0.01 (−0.17 to 0.15) 0.02 (−0.14 to 0.19) 0.76 
    36 months Crude 0.35 (0.03 to 0.68) −0.09 (−0.37 to 0.20) 0.05 0.16 (−0.04 to 0.37) 0.31 (0.10 to 0.52) 0.32 
    36 months Adjusted 0.39 (0.09 to 0.69) −0.12 (−0.38 to 0.15) 0.01 0.19 (0.00 to 0.38) 0.28 (0.09 to 0.48) 0.49 
Plasma insulin (μU/ml)        
    6 months Crude −0.34 (−1.27 to 0.59) −0.2 (−1.02 to 0.63) 0.82 −0.68 (−1.34 to −0.03) −0.19 (−0.86 to 0.48) 0.30 
    6 months Adjusted −0.29 (−1.22 to 0.65) −0.23 (−1.06 to 0.59) 0.93 −0.60 (−1.24 to 0.04) −0.28 (−0.93 to 0.38) 0.49 
    36 months Crude 1.08 (−0.15 to 2.30) −0.43 (−1.51 to 0.64) 0.07 0.23 (−0.50 to 0.97) 1.08 (0.33 to 1.83) 0.12 
    36 months Adjusted 1.16 (0.02 to 2.30) −0.49 (−1.50 to 0.51) 0.04 0.37 (−0.32 to 1.06) 0.94 (0.23 to 1.64) 0.26 
Plasma glucose (mg/dl)        
    6 months Crude 3.41 (1.79 to 5.04) 3.52 (2.09 to 4.96) 0.92 2.28 (0.80 to 3.75) 2.31 (0.80 to 3.82) 0.97 
    6 months Adjusted 3.70 (2.08 to 5.32) 3.30 (1.87 to 4.72) 0.72 2.43 (0.98 to 3.88) 2.16 (0.67 to 3.64) 0.80 
    36 months Crude 2.15 (0.20 to 4.10) 0.98 (−0.75 to 2.72) 0.38 1.51 (−0.04 to 3.05) 1.33 (−0.24 to 2.91) 0.88 
    36 months Adjusted 2.57 (0.70 to 4.44) 0.65 (−1.01 to 2.31) 0.14 1.68 (0.17 to 3.18) 1.16 (−0.38 to 2.69) 0.64 

Data are least-squares means (95% CI). Least-squares means are the mean changes in the outcomes when individual values covariates are held constant. Crude analysis was adjusted for the baseline outcome measure (HOMA-IR, plasma insulin, or glucose). Adjusted analysis controlled for baseline outcome measures, baseline BMI, and either 6- or 36-month weight change.

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