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Table 1—

Characteristics of study participants at baseline according to whether type 2 diabetes developed after the 4-year follow-up and multivariate model of the incidence of type 2 diabetes

TotalType 2 diabetes status after follow-up
Multivariate model*
Not type 2 diabetesType 2 diabetesMultiple-adjusted OR (95% CI)P
n 8,576 7,698 878   
Walk to work      
    0–10 min 1,698 (19.8) 1,508 (19.6) 190 (21.6) 1.00  
    11–20 min 4,491 (52.4) 4,028 (52.3) 463 (52.7) 0.86 (0.70–1.06) 0.158 
    ≥21 min 2,387 (27.8) 2,162 (28.1) 225 (25.6) 0.73 (0.58–0.92) 0.007 
Age (years) 47.8 ± 4.2 47.7 ± 4.1 48.7 ± 4.1   
Age categories      
    40–44 2,163 (25.2) 1,993 (25.9) 170 (19.4) 1.00  
    45–49 3,055 (35.6) 2,776 (36.1) 279 (31.8) 1.02 (0.81–1.27) 0.899 
    50–55 3,358 (39.2) 2,929 (38.0) 429 (48.9) 1.37 (1.11–1.70) 0.003 
BMI (kg/m223.4 ± 2.9 23.3 ± 2.8 24.6 ± 3.2 1.11 (1.08–1.14) <0.001 
FPG (mg/dl) 97.6 ± 9.5 96.3 ± 8.5 109.1 ± 9.8   
FPG categories (mg/dl)      
    <100 5,348 (62.4) 5,199 (67.5) 149 (17.0) 1.00  
    100–109 2,235 (26.1) 1,969 (25.6) 266 (30.3) 4.51 (3.65–5.56) <0.001 
    110–125 993 (11.6) 530 (6.9) 463 (52.7) 28.01 (22.65–34.63) <0.001 
Daily alcohol consumption (g ethanol) 25.2 ± 21.9 25.1 ± 21.9 25.8 ± 22.3   
Drinking habit categories (g ethanol)      
    Nondrinkers 1,334 (15.6) 1,192 (15.5) 142 (16.2) 1.00  
    Tertile 1 (0.1–16.3) 1,657 (19.3) 1,493 (19.4) 164 (18.7) 0.94 (0.71–1.23) 0.636 
    Tertile 2 (16.4–42.6) 3,002 (35.0) 2,711 (35.2) 291 (33.1) 0.75 (0.59–0.95) 0.018 
    Tertile 3 (42.7–115.0) 2,583 (30.1) 2,302 (29.9) 281 (32.0) 0.83 (0.65–1.06) 0.129 
Smoking habit      
    Lifelong nonsmokers 1,841 (21.5) 1,662 (21.6) 179 (20.4) 1.00  
    Past smokers 1,924 (22.4) 1,710 (22.2) 214 (24.4) 1.07 (0.84–1.36) 0.600 
    Current smokers 4,811 (56.1) 4,326 (56.2) 485 (55.2) 1.36 (1.11–1.68) 0.004 
Regular leisure-time physical exercise      
    No 7,028 (81.9) 6,296 (81.8) 732 (83.4) 1.00  
    Yes 1,548 (18.1) 1,402 (18.2) 146 (16.6) 0.90 (0.72–1.11) 0.317 
Parental history of diabetes      
    No 7,472 (87.1) 6,778 (88.0) 694 (79.0) 1.00  
    Yes 1,104 (12.9) 920 (12.0) 184 (21.0) 1.65 (1.34–2.02) <0.001 
TotalType 2 diabetes status after follow-up
Multivariate model*
Not type 2 diabetesType 2 diabetesMultiple-adjusted OR (95% CI)P
n 8,576 7,698 878   
Walk to work      
    0–10 min 1,698 (19.8) 1,508 (19.6) 190 (21.6) 1.00  
    11–20 min 4,491 (52.4) 4,028 (52.3) 463 (52.7) 0.86 (0.70–1.06) 0.158 
    ≥21 min 2,387 (27.8) 2,162 (28.1) 225 (25.6) 0.73 (0.58–0.92) 0.007 
Age (years) 47.8 ± 4.2 47.7 ± 4.1 48.7 ± 4.1   
Age categories      
    40–44 2,163 (25.2) 1,993 (25.9) 170 (19.4) 1.00  
    45–49 3,055 (35.6) 2,776 (36.1) 279 (31.8) 1.02 (0.81–1.27) 0.899 
    50–55 3,358 (39.2) 2,929 (38.0) 429 (48.9) 1.37 (1.11–1.70) 0.003 
BMI (kg/m223.4 ± 2.9 23.3 ± 2.8 24.6 ± 3.2 1.11 (1.08–1.14) <0.001 
FPG (mg/dl) 97.6 ± 9.5 96.3 ± 8.5 109.1 ± 9.8   
FPG categories (mg/dl)      
    <100 5,348 (62.4) 5,199 (67.5) 149 (17.0) 1.00  
    100–109 2,235 (26.1) 1,969 (25.6) 266 (30.3) 4.51 (3.65–5.56) <0.001 
    110–125 993 (11.6) 530 (6.9) 463 (52.7) 28.01 (22.65–34.63) <0.001 
Daily alcohol consumption (g ethanol) 25.2 ± 21.9 25.1 ± 21.9 25.8 ± 22.3   
Drinking habit categories (g ethanol)      
    Nondrinkers 1,334 (15.6) 1,192 (15.5) 142 (16.2) 1.00  
    Tertile 1 (0.1–16.3) 1,657 (19.3) 1,493 (19.4) 164 (18.7) 0.94 (0.71–1.23) 0.636 
    Tertile 2 (16.4–42.6) 3,002 (35.0) 2,711 (35.2) 291 (33.1) 0.75 (0.59–0.95) 0.018 
    Tertile 3 (42.7–115.0) 2,583 (30.1) 2,302 (29.9) 281 (32.0) 0.83 (0.65–1.06) 0.129 
Smoking habit      
    Lifelong nonsmokers 1,841 (21.5) 1,662 (21.6) 179 (20.4) 1.00  
    Past smokers 1,924 (22.4) 1,710 (22.2) 214 (24.4) 1.07 (0.84–1.36) 0.600 
    Current smokers 4,811 (56.1) 4,326 (56.2) 485 (55.2) 1.36 (1.11–1.68) 0.004 
Regular leisure-time physical exercise      
    No 7,028 (81.9) 6,296 (81.8) 732 (83.4) 1.00  
    Yes 1,548 (18.1) 1,402 (18.2) 146 (16.6) 0.90 (0.72–1.11) 0.317 
Parental history of diabetes      
    No 7,472 (87.1) 6,778 (88.0) 694 (79.0) 1.00  
    Yes 1,104 (12.9) 920 (12.0) 184 (21.0) 1.65 (1.34–2.02) <0.001 

Data are means ± SD, n (%), or multiple-adjusted ORs (95% CI).

*

In multiple logistic regression analysis, age, fasting plasma glucose level, and daily alcohol consumption showed a nonlinear association with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we fit the model by using these variables categorized for easy understanding.

As only 5.5% of men reported a walk of ≥31 min, we combined them into the 21- to 30-min walk category.

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