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Table 1—

Study and participant characteristics and methods used to measure GHb

Study and participant characteristics
GHb
Year (reference)DesignStudy setting; periodNo. with type 1/type 2 diabetesMean ± SD maternal age (years)Definition of periconception periodAssay usedGHb measureMean ± SD for nondiabetic, nonpregnant control subjects (%)
1987 (6) Prospective cohort Single U.S. medical center; 1979–1984 63/20 25.6 ± NA <15 weeks’ gestation Spectrophotmetric absorption A1C 5.1 ± 1.1 
1988 (7) Prospective cohort U.S. university; 1978–1986 134/0 25.0 ± NA Recruited during first trimester of pregnancy 1978–1980: high-performance liquid chromatography; 1981–1986: column chromatography HbA1 NA* 
1989 (8,9) Prospective cohort Large U.S. diabetes center; 1984–1992 599/0 29.1 ± NA ≤12 weeks’ gestation Electrophoresis A1C 5.9 ± 0.57 
1989 (13) Prospective cohort Single U.S. hospital; 1980–1985 87/0 NA <16 weeks’ gestation Ion exchange chromatography HbA1a + b+c 6.0 ± 1.0 
2000 (14) Prospective cohort Finnish university hospital; 1988–1997 663/0 NA 5–10 weeks’ gestation High-performance liquid chromatography A1C 4.9 (0.32) 
1991 (15) Prospective cohort California, U.S. database; 1982–1988 84/0 29.7 ± 4.4 Participation prior to conception High-pressure column chromatography A1C 6.2 ± 0.7 
1988 (16) Prospective cohort U.S. 327/0 27.8 ± 4.0 Before conception and up to 21 days after conception Thiobarbituric acid colorimetric method NA NA 
Study and participant characteristics
GHb
Year (reference)DesignStudy setting; periodNo. with type 1/type 2 diabetesMean ± SD maternal age (years)Definition of periconception periodAssay usedGHb measureMean ± SD for nondiabetic, nonpregnant control subjects (%)
1987 (6) Prospective cohort Single U.S. medical center; 1979–1984 63/20 25.6 ± NA <15 weeks’ gestation Spectrophotmetric absorption A1C 5.1 ± 1.1 
1988 (7) Prospective cohort U.S. university; 1978–1986 134/0 25.0 ± NA Recruited during first trimester of pregnancy 1978–1980: high-performance liquid chromatography; 1981–1986: column chromatography HbA1 NA* 
1989 (8,9) Prospective cohort Large U.S. diabetes center; 1984–1992 599/0 29.1 ± NA ≤12 weeks’ gestation Electrophoresis A1C 5.9 ± 0.57 
1989 (13) Prospective cohort Single U.S. hospital; 1980–1985 87/0 NA <16 weeks’ gestation Ion exchange chromatography HbA1a + b+c 6.0 ± 1.0 
2000 (14) Prospective cohort Finnish university hospital; 1988–1997 663/0 NA 5–10 weeks’ gestation High-performance liquid chromatography A1C 4.9 (0.32) 
1991 (15) Prospective cohort California, U.S. database; 1982–1988 84/0 29.7 ± 4.4 Participation prior to conception High-pressure column chromatography A1C 6.2 ± 0.7 
1988 (16) Prospective cohort U.S. 327/0 27.8 ± 4.0 Before conception and up to 21 days after conception Thiobarbituric acid colorimetric method NA NA 
*

Not provided, but the number of SD was given in paper.

SD estimated from the reported range of values.

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