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Table 2—

Methods used to detect for congenital anomalies in studies of women with prepregnancy diabetes

Year (reference)Method(s) described for the systematic detection of congenital anomalies
Were these detection methods equally applied to all women?Were assessors masked as to the mother's glycemic control?
Anatomical ultrasound in uteroMaternal serum or amniotic fluid α-fetoproteinPhysical examination of all infants after birthAutopsy of all fetal and neonatal deaths
1987 (6) Some No Yes No No NA 
1988 (7) Yes No Yes Yes Yes NA 
1989 (8,9) Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes 
1989 (13) No No Yes NA Yes Yes 
2000 (14) No No Yes No Yes NA 
1991 (15) No No No No NA NA 
1988 (16) No No Yes No Yes Yes 
Year (reference)Method(s) described for the systematic detection of congenital anomalies
Were these detection methods equally applied to all women?Were assessors masked as to the mother's glycemic control?
Anatomical ultrasound in uteroMaternal serum or amniotic fluid α-fetoproteinPhysical examination of all infants after birthAutopsy of all fetal and neonatal deaths
1987 (6) Some No Yes No No NA 
1988 (7) Yes No Yes Yes Yes NA 
1989 (8,9) Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes 
1989 (13) No No Yes NA Yes Yes 
2000 (14) No No Yes No Yes NA 
1991 (15) No No No No NA NA 
1988 (16) No No Yes No Yes Yes 
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