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Table 1—

Mortality rates and hazard ratios (95% CIs) for selected mortality outcomes in relation to obesity and overweight in men with and without type 2 diabetes/IGT in the original Whitehall Study

Mortality outcomeNormoglycemic (n = 17,135)
Diabetes /IGT (n = 1,225)
P for interaction
Normal weightOverweightObeseP for trendNormal weightOverweightObeseP for trend
n 9,398 7,038 699  568 562 95   
All causes*          
    Deaths 6,367 5,169 570  454 453 88   
    Mortality rate (age adjusted) 29.7 31.0 37.2  35.9 35.3 56.8   
    Age adjusted 1.0 (ref.) 1.07 (1.03–1.11) 1.43 (1.31–1.56) <0.001 1.0 (ref.) 1.02 (0.89–1.16) 1.61 (1.28–2.02) 0.008 0.58 
    Confounder adjusted 1.0 1.09 (1.05–1.13) 1.42 (1.30–1.53) <0.001 1.0 1.06 (0.93–1.21) 1.45 (1.15–1.82) 0.01 0.89 
    Multiple adjusted§ 1.0 1.03 (0.99–1.07) 1.26 (1.16–1.38) <0.001 1.0 0.99 (0.87–1.13) 1.29 (1.02–1.62) 0.20 0.94 
CVD          
    Deaths 2,844 2,604 314  225 240 54   
    Mortality rate (age adjusted) 13.4 15.7 20.8  17.9 18.8 26.5   
    Age adjusted 1.0 1.20 (1.14–1.26) 1.74 (1.55–1.95) <0.001 1.0 1.08 (0.90–1.30) 1.92 (1.43–2.59) 0.001 0.91 
    Confounder adjusted 1.0 1.22 (1.15–1.28) 1.71 (1.52–1.92) <0.001 1.0 1.13 (0.94–1.35) 1.79 (1.33–2.42) 0.001 0.98 
    Multiple adjusted 1.0 1.09 (1.03–1.15) 1.40 (1.25–1.58) <0.001 1.0 1.02 (0.85–1.30) 1.53 (1.13–2.07) 0.05 0.85 
CHD          
    Deaths 1,756 1,670 205  142 167 41   
    Mortality rate (age adjusted) 8.2 10.0 13.6  11.3 13.2 20.9   
    Age adjusted 1.0 1.25 (1.17–1.33) 1.80 (1.56–2.08) <0.001 1.0 1.19 (0.95–1.49) 2.20 (1.57–3.14) <0.001 0.45 
    Confounder adjusted 1.0 1.26 (1.18–1.35) 1.76 (1.52–2.03) <0.001 1.0 1.23 (0.99–1.54) 2.10 (1.48–2.97) <0.001 0.47 
    Multiple adjusted 1.0 1.14 (1.06–1.22) 1.47 (1.27–1.71) <0.001 1.0 1.12 (0.89–1.40) 1.83 (1.29–2.59) 0.006 0.38 
All cancers          
    Deaths 1,854 1,390 128  101 94 16   
    Mortality rate (age adjusted) 8.4 8.2 8.3  8.0 7.4 8.6   
    Age adjusted 1.0 1.00 (0.93–1.07) 1.10 (0.92–1.31) 0.67 1.0 0.95 (0.72–1.26) 1.28 (0.76–2.18) 0.72 0.82 
    Confounder adjusted 1.0 1.03 (0.96–1.10) 1.12 (0.94–1.34) 0.23 1.0 0.98 (0.74–1.30) 1.14 (0.67–1.94) 0.81 0.94 
    Multiple adjusted 1.0 1.02 (0.95–1.10) 1.11 (0.92–1.33) 0.34 1.0 0.98 (0.74–1.29) 1.11 (0.85–1.46) 0.88 0.90 
Mortality outcomeNormoglycemic (n = 17,135)
Diabetes /IGT (n = 1,225)
P for interaction
Normal weightOverweightObeseP for trendNormal weightOverweightObeseP for trend
n 9,398 7,038 699  568 562 95   
All causes*          
    Deaths 6,367 5,169 570  454 453 88   
    Mortality rate (age adjusted) 29.7 31.0 37.2  35.9 35.3 56.8   
    Age adjusted 1.0 (ref.) 1.07 (1.03–1.11) 1.43 (1.31–1.56) <0.001 1.0 (ref.) 1.02 (0.89–1.16) 1.61 (1.28–2.02) 0.008 0.58 
    Confounder adjusted 1.0 1.09 (1.05–1.13) 1.42 (1.30–1.53) <0.001 1.0 1.06 (0.93–1.21) 1.45 (1.15–1.82) 0.01 0.89 
    Multiple adjusted§ 1.0 1.03 (0.99–1.07) 1.26 (1.16–1.38) <0.001 1.0 0.99 (0.87–1.13) 1.29 (1.02–1.62) 0.20 0.94 
CVD          
    Deaths 2,844 2,604 314  225 240 54   
    Mortality rate (age adjusted) 13.4 15.7 20.8  17.9 18.8 26.5   
    Age adjusted 1.0 1.20 (1.14–1.26) 1.74 (1.55–1.95) <0.001 1.0 1.08 (0.90–1.30) 1.92 (1.43–2.59) 0.001 0.91 
    Confounder adjusted 1.0 1.22 (1.15–1.28) 1.71 (1.52–1.92) <0.001 1.0 1.13 (0.94–1.35) 1.79 (1.33–2.42) 0.001 0.98 
    Multiple adjusted 1.0 1.09 (1.03–1.15) 1.40 (1.25–1.58) <0.001 1.0 1.02 (0.85–1.30) 1.53 (1.13–2.07) 0.05 0.85 
CHD          
    Deaths 1,756 1,670 205  142 167 41   
    Mortality rate (age adjusted) 8.2 10.0 13.6  11.3 13.2 20.9   
    Age adjusted 1.0 1.25 (1.17–1.33) 1.80 (1.56–2.08) <0.001 1.0 1.19 (0.95–1.49) 2.20 (1.57–3.14) <0.001 0.45 
    Confounder adjusted 1.0 1.26 (1.18–1.35) 1.76 (1.52–2.03) <0.001 1.0 1.23 (0.99–1.54) 2.10 (1.48–2.97) <0.001 0.47 
    Multiple adjusted 1.0 1.14 (1.06–1.22) 1.47 (1.27–1.71) <0.001 1.0 1.12 (0.89–1.40) 1.83 (1.29–2.59) 0.006 0.38 
All cancers          
    Deaths 1,854 1,390 128  101 94 16   
    Mortality rate (age adjusted) 8.4 8.2 8.3  8.0 7.4 8.6   
    Age adjusted 1.0 1.00 (0.93–1.07) 1.10 (0.92–1.31) 0.67 1.0 0.95 (0.72–1.26) 1.28 (0.76–2.18) 0.72 0.82 
    Confounder adjusted 1.0 1.03 (0.96–1.10) 1.12 (0.94–1.34) 0.23 1.0 0.98 (0.74–1.30) 1.14 (0.67–1.94) 0.81 0.94 
    Multiple adjusted 1.0 1.02 (0.95–1.10) 1.11 (0.92–1.33) 0.34 1.0 0.98 (0.74–1.29) 1.11 (0.85–1.46) 0.88 0.90 
*

Forty-three men with unknown cause of death have been excluded from the cause-specific analyses.

Mortality rates are expressed per 1,000 person-years.

Confounder-adjusted model adjusted for age, employment grade, physical activity, smoking habit, marital status, disease at entry, and weight loss in the last year.

§

Multiple-adjusted model adjusted for all potential confounding variables (as above) plus blood pressure–lowering medication, height-adjusted forced expiratory volume in 1 s, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and plasma cholesterol.

Tests of interaction to determine if the linear trend across BMI categories was the same in normoglycemic subjects and men with diabetes/IGT. Disease categories utilized were: deaths due to CVD (ICD8/9, 390–458; ICD10, I00-I99), CHD (ICD8/9, 410–414; ICD10, I20-I25), and all cancers (ICD-8, 140–208; ICD-9, 140–209; ICD-10, 140–208; C00-C97).

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