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Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of the diabetic cohort (n = 2,103) by CVD status

VariablesControl subjectsCase subjectsP
n 1,719 384  
Sex (% men) 62% 63% 0.80 
Age (years) 59 ± 3 61 ± 4 0.001 
BMI (kg/m226 ± 3 28 ± 4 0.001 
Waist circumference (cm) 93 ± 11 99 ± 13 0.001 
Duration of diabetes (years) 14 ± 3 16 ± 3 0.60 
Diabetes treatment    
    Diet only 21 15 0.20 
    Oral hypoglycemic drugs 62 65 0.30 
    Insulin only 17 20 0.20 
Antihypertensive users 60 73 0.001 
Aspirin users 49 48 0.80 
Lipid-lowering users 34 36 0.60 
Current smokers 22 23 0.70 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 127 ± 12 131 ± 16 0.001 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 80 ± 12 83 ± 14 0.001 
A1C (%) 6.9 ± 0.8 7.3 ± 1.0 0.001 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.32 ± 0.6 1.62 ± 1.0 0.001 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.40 ± 0.3 1.32 ± 0.4 0.001 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.35 ± 0.4 3.32 ± 0.5 0.80 
AST (units/l) 20 ± 6 26 ± 12 0.001 
ALT (units/l) 24 ± 6 32 ± 13 0.001 
GGT (units/l) 23 ± 10 34 ± 14 0.001 
Metabolic syndrome 59 75 0.001 
NAFLD 61 96 0.001 
VariablesControl subjectsCase subjectsP
n 1,719 384  
Sex (% men) 62% 63% 0.80 
Age (years) 59 ± 3 61 ± 4 0.001 
BMI (kg/m226 ± 3 28 ± 4 0.001 
Waist circumference (cm) 93 ± 11 99 ± 13 0.001 
Duration of diabetes (years) 14 ± 3 16 ± 3 0.60 
Diabetes treatment    
    Diet only 21 15 0.20 
    Oral hypoglycemic drugs 62 65 0.30 
    Insulin only 17 20 0.20 
Antihypertensive users 60 73 0.001 
Aspirin users 49 48 0.80 
Lipid-lowering users 34 36 0.60 
Current smokers 22 23 0.70 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 127 ± 12 131 ± 16 0.001 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 80 ± 12 83 ± 14 0.001 
A1C (%) 6.9 ± 0.8 7.3 ± 1.0 0.001 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.32 ± 0.6 1.62 ± 1.0 0.001 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.40 ± 0.3 1.32 ± 0.4 0.001 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.35 ± 0.4 3.32 ± 0.5 0.80 
AST (units/l) 20 ± 6 26 ± 12 0.001 
ALT (units/l) 24 ± 6 32 ± 13 0.001 
GGT (units/l) 23 ± 10 34 ± 14 0.001 
Metabolic syndrome 59 75 0.001 
NAFLD 61 96 0.001 

Data are means ± SD or percentages unless otherwise indicated. Differences are assessed by the unpaired t test (for normally distributed variables) and by the χ2 test (for categorical variables). ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; GGT, γ-glutamyl transferase.

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