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Table 3—

Wording and statistical measures of the BIT Questionnaire items and scales in sample B

Item number and wordingMeans ± SDItem selectivityCronbach's α without item
Scale 1: “Fear of injections and self-testing” (α = 0.85) 3.19 ± 2.78   
    1. I am afraid of the pain when injecting insulin. 3.62 ± 3.33 0.80 0.70 
    2. Besides the pain, I am just afraid of injections. 3.58 ± 3.50 0.79 0.72 
    3. I am afraid of the pain during regular blood-sugar checks. 2.37 ± 2.64 0.60 0.89 
Scale 2: “Expectations regarding positive insulin-related outcomes” (α = 0.66) 7.36 ± 1.87   
    4. Insulin works better than pills. 8.19 ± 2.41 0.39 0.68 
    5. People who get insulin feel better. 7.42 ± 2.46 0.53 0.49 
    6. Insulin can reliably prevent long-term complications due to diabetes. 6.46 ± 2.38 0.51 0.52 
Scale 3: “Expected hardship from insulin therapy” (α = 0.81) 4.20 ± 2.74   
    7. I just don't have enough time for regular doses of insulin. 3.30 ± 3.04 0.62 0.78 
    8. I can't pay as close attention to my diet as insulin treatment requires. 4.73 ± 3.25 0.67 0.73 
    9. I can't organize my day as carefully as insulin treatment requires. 4.58 ± 3.38 0.70 0.70 
Scale 4: “Stigmatization by insulin injections” (α = 0.62) 4.30 ± 2.52   
    10. Injections in public are embarrassing to me. Pills are more discreet. 5.45 ± 3.78 0.42 0.55 
    11. Regular insulin treatment causes feelings of dependence. 5.06 ± 3.46 0.42 0.53 
    12. When people inject insulin, it makes them feel like drug addicts. 2.38 ± 2.70 0.48 0.49 
Scale 5: “Fear of hypoglycemia” (α = 0.78) 6.21 ± 2.73   
    13. An insulin overdose can lead to extremely low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia). I am afraid of the unpleasant accompanying symptoms. 6.61 ± 2.92 0.64 * 
    14. An insulin overdose can lead to extremely low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia). I have concerns about possible permanent damage to my health. 5.81 ± 3.11 0.64 * 
BIT Questionnaire sum score (α = 0.78) 4.17 ± 1.55   
Item number and wordingMeans ± SDItem selectivityCronbach's α without item
Scale 1: “Fear of injections and self-testing” (α = 0.85) 3.19 ± 2.78   
    1. I am afraid of the pain when injecting insulin. 3.62 ± 3.33 0.80 0.70 
    2. Besides the pain, I am just afraid of injections. 3.58 ± 3.50 0.79 0.72 
    3. I am afraid of the pain during regular blood-sugar checks. 2.37 ± 2.64 0.60 0.89 
Scale 2: “Expectations regarding positive insulin-related outcomes” (α = 0.66) 7.36 ± 1.87   
    4. Insulin works better than pills. 8.19 ± 2.41 0.39 0.68 
    5. People who get insulin feel better. 7.42 ± 2.46 0.53 0.49 
    6. Insulin can reliably prevent long-term complications due to diabetes. 6.46 ± 2.38 0.51 0.52 
Scale 3: “Expected hardship from insulin therapy” (α = 0.81) 4.20 ± 2.74   
    7. I just don't have enough time for regular doses of insulin. 3.30 ± 3.04 0.62 0.78 
    8. I can't pay as close attention to my diet as insulin treatment requires. 4.73 ± 3.25 0.67 0.73 
    9. I can't organize my day as carefully as insulin treatment requires. 4.58 ± 3.38 0.70 0.70 
Scale 4: “Stigmatization by insulin injections” (α = 0.62) 4.30 ± 2.52   
    10. Injections in public are embarrassing to me. Pills are more discreet. 5.45 ± 3.78 0.42 0.55 
    11. Regular insulin treatment causes feelings of dependence. 5.06 ± 3.46 0.42 0.53 
    12. When people inject insulin, it makes them feel like drug addicts. 2.38 ± 2.70 0.48 0.49 
Scale 5: “Fear of hypoglycemia” (α = 0.78) 6.21 ± 2.73   
    13. An insulin overdose can lead to extremely low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia). I am afraid of the unpleasant accompanying symptoms. 6.61 ± 2.92 0.64 * 
    14. An insulin overdose can lead to extremely low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia). I have concerns about possible permanent damage to my health. 5.81 ± 3.11 0.64 * 
BIT Questionnaire sum score (α = 0.78) 4.17 ± 1.55   

n = 448–449. Item selectivity = part-whole corrected item selectivity. Cronbach's α without item = Cronbach's α if item deleted.

*

Not applicable because scale contains only two items.

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