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Table 1—

Meta-analysis results aggregated by type of self-care

nz (P)Weighted r95% CIHeterogeneity Q (df) and I2Fail-safe n (r = 0.05)
Overall analysis 47 9.81 (<0.001) 0.21 0.17–0.25 217.66 (46); P < 0.001; I2 = 78.87 149 
Appointment keeping 21.58 (<0.001) 0.31 0.29–0.34 1.79 (3); P = 0.617; I2 = 0.00 22 
Composite measures 18 9.66 (<0.001) 0.29 0.23–0.34 38.60 (17); P = 0.002; I2 =55.96 88 
Diet 18 7.60 (<0.001) 0.18 0.13–0.22 33.67 (17); P = 0.009; I2 = 49.51 37 
Medication 18 5.15 (<0.001) 0.14 0.09–0.20 49.73 (16); P < 0.001; I2 = 65.82 24 
Exercise 13 7.89 (<0.001) 0.14 0.10–0.17 14.43 (12); P = 0.274; I2 = 16.86 22 
Glucose monitoring 15 3.50 (<0.001) 0.10 0.04–0.16 31.00 (14); P = 0.006; I2 = 54.82 
Foot care 0.88 (0.380) 0.07 −0.08 to 0.21 4.27 (1); P = 0.039; I2 = 76.59 NA 
nz (P)Weighted r95% CIHeterogeneity Q (df) and I2Fail-safe n (r = 0.05)
Overall analysis 47 9.81 (<0.001) 0.21 0.17–0.25 217.66 (46); P < 0.001; I2 = 78.87 149 
Appointment keeping 21.58 (<0.001) 0.31 0.29–0.34 1.79 (3); P = 0.617; I2 = 0.00 22 
Composite measures 18 9.66 (<0.001) 0.29 0.23–0.34 38.60 (17); P = 0.002; I2 =55.96 88 
Diet 18 7.60 (<0.001) 0.18 0.13–0.22 33.67 (17); P = 0.009; I2 = 49.51 37 
Medication 18 5.15 (<0.001) 0.14 0.09–0.20 49.73 (16); P < 0.001; I2 = 65.82 24 
Exercise 13 7.89 (<0.001) 0.14 0.10–0.17 14.43 (12); P = 0.274; I2 = 16.86 22 
Glucose monitoring 15 3.50 (<0.001) 0.10 0.04–0.16 31.00 (14); P = 0.006; I2 = 54.82 
Foot care 0.88 (0.380) 0.07 −0.08 to 0.21 4.27 (1); P = 0.039; I2 = 76.59 NA 
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