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Table 1—

Distribution of perception of risk or chance for future diabetes and association with participant characteristics

TotalAlmost no chanceSlight chanceModerate chanceHigh chance
n 217 16 76 88 35 
Age (years) 35.7 ± 5.4 34.5 ± 5.7 36.4 ± 5.5 35.7 ± 5.1 34.9 ± 5.6 
Race      
    Non-Hispanic white 71 69 68 71 74 
    Asian/Pacific Islander 13 13 16 15 
    African American 
    Other 10 13 12 15 
Education      
    Less than high school or high school 25 3 8 9 
    Some college 29 19 25 26 44 
    College graduate or more 64 56 72 66 47 
Annual household income      
    <$15,000 per year 
    $15,000 to <$40,000 12 21 12 21 
    $40,000 to <$75,0000 32 36 23 35 39 
    ≥$75,000 52 43 64 48 39 
Family history of diabetes* 52 31 43 66 50 
History of dyslipidemia 23 25 24 23 
History of hypertension outside of pregnancy 13 
Current cigarette smoking 11 15 14 
Duration of breast-feeding without formula      
    0 to <3 months 53 44 46 63 47 
    3 months to <1 year 33 25 45 23 35 
    ≥1 year 14 31 9 14 18 
Current BMI (kg/m230.1 ± 7.7 24.7 ± 3.8 27.3 ± 6.5 32.4 ± 8.1 32.6 ± 7.2 
Time since delivery (months) 27.0 ± 17.8 37.4 ± 19.2 28.1 ± 19.6 26.2 ± 16.4 22.5 ± 15.4 
Prenatal provider type      
    Obstetrician/gynecologist 90 88 89 93 86 
    Family practitioner 14 31 20 9 9 
    Endocrinologist 42 25 43 41 51 
    Midwife 11 
    Dietician 60 56 55 60 71 
    Other 
Insulin use during pregnancy 42 19 38 44 57 
Personal control (possible range 1–4) 3.24 ± 0.49 3.42 ± 0.55 3.31 ± 0.46 3.20 ± 0.43 3.13 ± 0.61 
Optimistic bias (possible range 1–4) 2.12 ± 0.50 2.66 ± 0.68 2.24 ± 0.43 1.99 ± 0.41 1.91 ± 0.54 
Knowledge of diabetes risk factors (possible range 1–11) 6.9 ± 1.8 6.6 ± 2.2 6.9 ± 1.6 7.0 ± 1.6 7.0 ± 1.6 
Benefits/barriers (possible range 1–4) 3.43 ± 0.46 3.63 ± 0.57 3.46 ± 0.46 3.39 ± 0.40 3.40 ± 0.52 
TotalAlmost no chanceSlight chanceModerate chanceHigh chance
n 217 16 76 88 35 
Age (years) 35.7 ± 5.4 34.5 ± 5.7 36.4 ± 5.5 35.7 ± 5.1 34.9 ± 5.6 
Race      
    Non-Hispanic white 71 69 68 71 74 
    Asian/Pacific Islander 13 13 16 15 
    African American 
    Other 10 13 12 15 
Education      
    Less than high school or high school 25 3 8 9 
    Some college 29 19 25 26 44 
    College graduate or more 64 56 72 66 47 
Annual household income      
    <$15,000 per year 
    $15,000 to <$40,000 12 21 12 21 
    $40,000 to <$75,0000 32 36 23 35 39 
    ≥$75,000 52 43 64 48 39 
Family history of diabetes* 52 31 43 66 50 
History of dyslipidemia 23 25 24 23 
History of hypertension outside of pregnancy 13 
Current cigarette smoking 11 15 14 
Duration of breast-feeding without formula      
    0 to <3 months 53 44 46 63 47 
    3 months to <1 year 33 25 45 23 35 
    ≥1 year 14 31 9 14 18 
Current BMI (kg/m230.1 ± 7.7 24.7 ± 3.8 27.3 ± 6.5 32.4 ± 8.1 32.6 ± 7.2 
Time since delivery (months) 27.0 ± 17.8 37.4 ± 19.2 28.1 ± 19.6 26.2 ± 16.4 22.5 ± 15.4 
Prenatal provider type      
    Obstetrician/gynecologist 90 88 89 93 86 
    Family practitioner 14 31 20 9 9 
    Endocrinologist 42 25 43 41 51 
    Midwife 11 
    Dietician 60 56 55 60 71 
    Other 
Insulin use during pregnancy 42 19 38 44 57 
Personal control (possible range 1–4) 3.24 ± 0.49 3.42 ± 0.55 3.31 ± 0.46 3.20 ± 0.43 3.13 ± 0.61 
Optimistic bias (possible range 1–4) 2.12 ± 0.50 2.66 ± 0.68 2.24 ± 0.43 1.99 ± 0.41 1.91 ± 0.54 
Knowledge of diabetes risk factors (possible range 1–11) 6.9 ± 1.8 6.6 ± 2.2 6.9 ± 1.6 7.0 ± 1.6 7.0 ± 1.6 
Benefits/barriers (possible range 1–4) 3.43 ± 0.46 3.63 ± 0.57 3.46 ± 0.46 3.39 ± 0.40 3.40 ± 0.52 

Data are means ± SD or percent. Column headings indicate responses to the question, “What do you think your risk or chance is of getting diabetes over the next 10 years?” Bold type indicates associations at P ≤ 0.05.

*

First-degree relative with diabetes.

Women could see multiple provider types during pregnancy, so percentages do not sum to 100.

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