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Table 1—

Total number of births, mean maternal age, prevalence of smoking, crude prevalence of GDM, and multivariate logistic regression analysis OR for GDM, by risk factors, for all births 1995–2005

Risk factorn (% all births)Mean age (years)% smokingCrude prevalence GDM (%)Adjusted OR for GDM (95% CI)*
Age-group      
    <20 years 42,752 (4.5) 18.8 43.2 1.2 0.60 (0.54–0.67) 
    20–24 years 152,150 (16.0) 23.0 29.5 1.8 1.00 
    25–29 years 289,635 (30.5) 27.8 17.4 2.9 1.68 (1.61–1.76) 
    30–34 years 299,743 (31.5) 32.3 12.4 4.2 2.53 (2.42–2.64) 
    35–39 years 139,582 (14.7) 36.8 11.7 6.4 3.97 (3.80–4.16) 
    >40 years 26,875 (2.8) 41.3 11.1 9.8 6.13 (5.79–6.49) 
Region of country of birth      
    Australia and New Zealand 715,200 (75.2) 29.4 21.7 2.7 1.00 
    Northeast and Southeast Asia 84,497 (8.9) 31.6 2.0 9.4 3.24 (3.16–3.34) 
    Europe and North America 62,924 (6.6) 32.5 11.5 3.7 1.21 (1.16–1.26) 
    Middle East and North Africa 38,005 (4.0) 29.0 8.9 6.4 2.40 (2.30–2.51) 
    South Asia 17,266 (1.8) 30.0 0.9 10.5 4.22 (4.01–4.44) 
    Pacific 16,763 (1.8) 30.1 9.9 8.2 2.94 (2.78–3.11) 
    Other Africa 8,281 (0.9) 31.6 5.6 4.4 1.62 (1.46–1.80) 
    Caribbean, Central and South America 7,811 (0.8) 31.0 6.2 5.3 1.82 (1.65–2.01) 
Quartiles of socioeconomic status      
    1 (highest) 237,488 (25.0) 32.2 7.5 3.1 1.00 
    2 230,825 (24.3) 29.9 15.8 4.1 1.54 (1.50–1.59) 
    3 240,633 (25.3) 28.7 22.4 4.0 1.74 (1.69–1.80) 
    4 (lowest) 241,801 (25.4) 28.2 25.7 3.9 1.65 (1.60–1.70) 
Previous pregnancies >20 weeks      
    None 391,766 (41.2) 28.1 15.3 3.4 1.00 
    1 321,035 (33.8) 30.3 15.9 3.7 0.90 (0.88–0.92) 
    ≥2 237,408 (25.0) 32.1 24.8 4.5 0.95 (0.93–0.98) 
Risk factorn (% all births)Mean age (years)% smokingCrude prevalence GDM (%)Adjusted OR for GDM (95% CI)*
Age-group      
    <20 years 42,752 (4.5) 18.8 43.2 1.2 0.60 (0.54–0.67) 
    20–24 years 152,150 (16.0) 23.0 29.5 1.8 1.00 
    25–29 years 289,635 (30.5) 27.8 17.4 2.9 1.68 (1.61–1.76) 
    30–34 years 299,743 (31.5) 32.3 12.4 4.2 2.53 (2.42–2.64) 
    35–39 years 139,582 (14.7) 36.8 11.7 6.4 3.97 (3.80–4.16) 
    >40 years 26,875 (2.8) 41.3 11.1 9.8 6.13 (5.79–6.49) 
Region of country of birth      
    Australia and New Zealand 715,200 (75.2) 29.4 21.7 2.7 1.00 
    Northeast and Southeast Asia 84,497 (8.9) 31.6 2.0 9.4 3.24 (3.16–3.34) 
    Europe and North America 62,924 (6.6) 32.5 11.5 3.7 1.21 (1.16–1.26) 
    Middle East and North Africa 38,005 (4.0) 29.0 8.9 6.4 2.40 (2.30–2.51) 
    South Asia 17,266 (1.8) 30.0 0.9 10.5 4.22 (4.01–4.44) 
    Pacific 16,763 (1.8) 30.1 9.9 8.2 2.94 (2.78–3.11) 
    Other Africa 8,281 (0.9) 31.6 5.6 4.4 1.62 (1.46–1.80) 
    Caribbean, Central and South America 7,811 (0.8) 31.0 6.2 5.3 1.82 (1.65–2.01) 
Quartiles of socioeconomic status      
    1 (highest) 237,488 (25.0) 32.2 7.5 3.1 1.00 
    2 230,825 (24.3) 29.9 15.8 4.1 1.54 (1.50–1.59) 
    3 240,633 (25.3) 28.7 22.4 4.0 1.74 (1.69–1.80) 
    4 (lowest) 241,801 (25.4) 28.2 25.7 3.9 1.65 (1.60–1.70) 
Previous pregnancies >20 weeks      
    None 391,766 (41.2) 28.1 15.3 3.4 1.00 
    1 321,035 (33.8) 30.3 15.9 3.7 0.90 (0.88–0.92) 
    ≥2 237,408 (25.0) 32.1 24.8 4.5 0.95 (0.93–0.98) 
*

Adjusted for all other variables in table.

Reference category.

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