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Table 1—

Hormonal profile in teenagers, in relation to sex, obesity, and parental history in teenagers and adults

Teenagers
Adults
nAdiponectin (μg/ml)Insulin (pmol/l)HOMA-IRnProinsulin (pmol/l) (n = 160)Proinsulin-to-insulin (n = 160)nAdiponectin (μg/ml)Insulin (pmol/l)HOMA-IR
Total 196 9.4 ± 4.5 134 ± 80 4.0 ± 2.0 160 7.1 0.049 84 15.4 ± 7.9 96.6 ± 63.6 4.0 ± 2.6 
    Male 94 8.4 ± 3.5 123 ± 73 3.5 ± 2.2 76 7.9 0.069 44 13.4 ± 7.0 99.6 ± 72.0 4.1 ± 2.8 
    Female 102 10.3 ± 5.0 144 ± 85 4.5 ± 1.8 84 6.5 0.041 40 16.5 ± 6.3* 93.6 ± 53.4 3.9 ± 2.5 
    Normal weight 87 9.0 ± 4.5 87.7 ± 57.8 3.1 ± 2.0 62 4.6 0.042 58 14.8 ± 6.1 87.0 ± 54.0 3.7 ± 2.5 
    Overweight 109 9.7 ± 4.4 171.3 ± 75.3§ 6.3 ± 2.9§ 98 8.3§ 0.05 26 16.0 ± 9.8 124.6 ± 66.8 5.0 ± 2.9* 
Male            
    Normal weight 44 8.0 ± 3.4 78.0 ± 52.0 2.1 ± 2.1 32 5.1 0.07 33 15.0 ± 7.4 79.8 ± 43.8 3.4 ± 2.0 
    Overweight 50 8.8 ± 3.6 163 ± 65 5.5 ± 1.6 44 9.1 0.06 11 14.2 ± 7.3 141.6 ± 99.0 5.7 ± 3.6 
Female            
    Normal weight 43 10.0 ± 5.3 97.0 ± 62.0 3.0 ± 1.7 30 3.2 0.025 25 16.6 ± 5.9 96.0 ± 64.2 4.0 ± 3.0 
    Overweight 59 10.5 ± 4.9 179.0 ± 83.0 5.9 ± 1.5 54 7.4 0.047 15 15.5 ± 8.1 147.4 ± 68.6 5.0 ± 2.4 
Parental history of diabetes            
    Negative 106 9.6 ± 4.7 134.0 ± 83.0 3.9 ± 1.9 81 6.4 0.043 67 14.3 ± 6.5 80.2 ± 41.6 3.9 ± 2.8 
    Positive 90 9.2 ± 4.2 134.0 ± 76.0 4.1 ± 2.0 79 7.5 0.051 17 16.2 ± 8.9 135.6 ± 60.8 5.2 ± 3.7 
Teenagers
Adults
nAdiponectin (μg/ml)Insulin (pmol/l)HOMA-IRnProinsulin (pmol/l) (n = 160)Proinsulin-to-insulin (n = 160)nAdiponectin (μg/ml)Insulin (pmol/l)HOMA-IR
Total 196 9.4 ± 4.5 134 ± 80 4.0 ± 2.0 160 7.1 0.049 84 15.4 ± 7.9 96.6 ± 63.6 4.0 ± 2.6 
    Male 94 8.4 ± 3.5 123 ± 73 3.5 ± 2.2 76 7.9 0.069 44 13.4 ± 7.0 99.6 ± 72.0 4.1 ± 2.8 
    Female 102 10.3 ± 5.0 144 ± 85 4.5 ± 1.8 84 6.5 0.041 40 16.5 ± 6.3* 93.6 ± 53.4 3.9 ± 2.5 
    Normal weight 87 9.0 ± 4.5 87.7 ± 57.8 3.1 ± 2.0 62 4.6 0.042 58 14.8 ± 6.1 87.0 ± 54.0 3.7 ± 2.5 
    Overweight 109 9.7 ± 4.4 171.3 ± 75.3§ 6.3 ± 2.9§ 98 8.3§ 0.05 26 16.0 ± 9.8 124.6 ± 66.8 5.0 ± 2.9* 
Male            
    Normal weight 44 8.0 ± 3.4 78.0 ± 52.0 2.1 ± 2.1 32 5.1 0.07 33 15.0 ± 7.4 79.8 ± 43.8 3.4 ± 2.0 
    Overweight 50 8.8 ± 3.6 163 ± 65 5.5 ± 1.6 44 9.1 0.06 11 14.2 ± 7.3 141.6 ± 99.0 5.7 ± 3.6 
Female            
    Normal weight 43 10.0 ± 5.3 97.0 ± 62.0 3.0 ± 1.7 30 3.2 0.025 25 16.6 ± 5.9 96.0 ± 64.2 4.0 ± 3.0 
    Overweight 59 10.5 ± 4.9 179.0 ± 83.0 5.9 ± 1.5 54 7.4 0.047 15 15.5 ± 8.1 147.4 ± 68.6 5.0 ± 2.4 
Parental history of diabetes            
    Negative 106 9.6 ± 4.7 134.0 ± 83.0 3.9 ± 1.9 81 6.4 0.043 67 14.3 ± 6.5 80.2 ± 41.6 3.9 ± 2.8 
    Positive 90 9.2 ± 4.2 134.0 ± 76.0 4.1 ± 2.0 79 7.5 0.051 17 16.2 ± 8.9 135.6 ± 60.8 5.2 ± 3.7 

Data are means ± SD or median unless otherwise indicated. Test of significance:

*

P < 0.05;

P < 0.02;

P < 0.0001;

§

P < 0.0002.

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