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Table 3—

Hormonal profile in relation to abnormalities in cardiometabolic variables

Mean values (n = 196)
Median values (n = 160)
n (%)Adiponectin (μg/ml)Insulin (pmol/l)HOMA-IRn (%)Proinsulin (pmol/l)Proinsulin-to-insulin
BMI (kg/m2       
    Normal 87 (44.3) 9.0 ± 4.5 87.7 ± 57.8 3.1 ± 2.0 62 (38.8) 4.6 0.042 
    Abnormal 109 (55.7) 9.7 ± 4.4 171.3 ± 75.3 6.3 ± 2.9 98 (61.2) 8.3 0.05 
Waist circumference (cm)        
    Normal 89 (45.4) 9.4 ± 4.7 98.5 ± 66.2 2.9 ± 2.0 65 (40.1) 5.2 0.042 
    Abnormal 107 (54.6) 9.4 ± 4.3 163.8 ± 77.9* 5.3 ± 1.8* 95 (59.9) 7.9 0.05 
Body fat (%)        
    Normal 102 (52.0) 9.3 ± 4.6 102.8 ± 72.6 2.9 ± 2.0 76 (47.5) 5.7 0.053 
    Abnormal 94 (48.0) 9.4 ± 4.3 168.2 ± 73.0* 5.7 ± 1.6 84 (52.5) 7.5 0.047 
Blood pressure (mmHg)        
    Normal 161 (82.1) 9.3 ± 4.2 120.8 ± 69.5 3.6 ± 1.9 133 (83.1) 6.9 0.051 
    Abnormal 35 (17.9) 9.8 ± 5.5 195.4 ± 94.7 6.4 ± 1.9 27 (16.9) 9.1 0.042 
Triglycerides (mmol/l)        
    Normal 143 (72.0) 9.6 ± 4.7 124.5 ± 75.1 3.7 ± 2.0 115 (71.9) 6.9 0.05 
    Abnormal 53 (27.0) 8.7 ± 3.8 160.2 ± 86.3 4.9 ± 1.8 45 (28.1) 8.9 0.05 
Cholesterol (mmol/l)        
    Normal 163 (83.2) 9.5 ± 4.5 132.4 ± 79.1 3.9 ± 2.0 130 (81.3) 6.6 0.046 
    Abnormal 33 (16.8) 9.0 ± 4.6 143.0 ± 63.1 4.4 ± 2.0 30 (18.7) 9.3 0.064 
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)        
    Normal 183 (93.4) 9.4 ± 4.5 131.0 ± 77.5 3.9 ± 1.9 150 (93.8) 7.0 0.048 
    Abnormal 13 (6.6) 8.5 ± 3.9 178.4 ± 98.1 5.4 ± 3.5 10 (6.2) 12.3* 0.092* 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)        
    Normal 64 (32.7) 9.5 ± 4.5 120.0 ± 79.6 3.5 ± 1.9 102 (63.8) 7.2 0.05 
    Abnormal 132 (67.3) 9.5 ± 4.4 141.0 ± 79.0 4.3 ± 2.0 58 (39.2) 7.0 0.043 
Abnormalities        
    None 88 (44.9) 9.3 ± 4.5 112.0 ± 66.3 4.0 ± 2.5 70 (43.8) 7.1 0.054 
    1 80 (40.1) 9.4 ± 4.5 134.2 ± 79.6§ 4.9 ± 3.0§ 66 (41.3) 6.4 0.042 
    ≥2 28 (14.3) 9.0 ± 3.8 176.6 ± 91.9 6.6 ± 3.5 24 (15.0) 9.0 0.051 
Mean values (n = 196)
Median values (n = 160)
n (%)Adiponectin (μg/ml)Insulin (pmol/l)HOMA-IRn (%)Proinsulin (pmol/l)Proinsulin-to-insulin
BMI (kg/m2       
    Normal 87 (44.3) 9.0 ± 4.5 87.7 ± 57.8 3.1 ± 2.0 62 (38.8) 4.6 0.042 
    Abnormal 109 (55.7) 9.7 ± 4.4 171.3 ± 75.3 6.3 ± 2.9 98 (61.2) 8.3 0.05 
Waist circumference (cm)        
    Normal 89 (45.4) 9.4 ± 4.7 98.5 ± 66.2 2.9 ± 2.0 65 (40.1) 5.2 0.042 
    Abnormal 107 (54.6) 9.4 ± 4.3 163.8 ± 77.9* 5.3 ± 1.8* 95 (59.9) 7.9 0.05 
Body fat (%)        
    Normal 102 (52.0) 9.3 ± 4.6 102.8 ± 72.6 2.9 ± 2.0 76 (47.5) 5.7 0.053 
    Abnormal 94 (48.0) 9.4 ± 4.3 168.2 ± 73.0* 5.7 ± 1.6 84 (52.5) 7.5 0.047 
Blood pressure (mmHg)        
    Normal 161 (82.1) 9.3 ± 4.2 120.8 ± 69.5 3.6 ± 1.9 133 (83.1) 6.9 0.051 
    Abnormal 35 (17.9) 9.8 ± 5.5 195.4 ± 94.7 6.4 ± 1.9 27 (16.9) 9.1 0.042 
Triglycerides (mmol/l)        
    Normal 143 (72.0) 9.6 ± 4.7 124.5 ± 75.1 3.7 ± 2.0 115 (71.9) 6.9 0.05 
    Abnormal 53 (27.0) 8.7 ± 3.8 160.2 ± 86.3 4.9 ± 1.8 45 (28.1) 8.9 0.05 
Cholesterol (mmol/l)        
    Normal 163 (83.2) 9.5 ± 4.5 132.4 ± 79.1 3.9 ± 2.0 130 (81.3) 6.6 0.046 
    Abnormal 33 (16.8) 9.0 ± 4.6 143.0 ± 63.1 4.4 ± 2.0 30 (18.7) 9.3 0.064 
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)        
    Normal 183 (93.4) 9.4 ± 4.5 131.0 ± 77.5 3.9 ± 1.9 150 (93.8) 7.0 0.048 
    Abnormal 13 (6.6) 8.5 ± 3.9 178.4 ± 98.1 5.4 ± 3.5 10 (6.2) 12.3* 0.092* 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)        
    Normal 64 (32.7) 9.5 ± 4.5 120.0 ± 79.6 3.5 ± 1.9 102 (63.8) 7.2 0.05 
    Abnormal 132 (67.3) 9.5 ± 4.4 141.0 ± 79.0 4.3 ± 2.0 58 (39.2) 7.0 0.043 
Abnormalities        
    None 88 (44.9) 9.3 ± 4.5 112.0 ± 66.3 4.0 ± 2.5 70 (43.8) 7.1 0.054 
    1 80 (40.1) 9.4 ± 4.5 134.2 ± 79.6§ 4.9 ± 3.0§ 66 (41.3) 6.4 0.042 
    ≥2 28 (14.3) 9.0 ± 3.8 176.6 ± 91.9 6.6 ± 3.5 24 (15.0) 9.0 0.051 

Data are means ± SD or median unless otherwise indicated.

*

P < 0.0001;

P < 0.001;

P < 0.05;

§

P < 0.05 vs. none;

P < 0.0001 vs. none;

P < 0.02 vs. 1.

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