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Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of total study population and stratified by DSM-IV depressive disorder

Total populationMajor depressive disorderMinor depressive disorderNo depressive disorderP value*
n 253 61 21 171  
Mean age (years) 62.0 ± 13.9 57.4 ± 14.5 65.2 ± 13.6 63.3 ± 13.4 0.01 
Sex      
    Female 92 (36.4) 26 (42.6) 7 (33.3) 59 (34.5) 0.50 
    Male 161 (63.6) 35 (57.4) 14 (66.7) 112 (65.5)  
Social class      
    I/II 85 (33.6) 16 (26.2) 9 (42.9) 60 (35.1) 0.40 
    III 94 (37.2) 22 (36.1) 8 (38.1) 64 (37.4)  
    IV/V 74 (29.2) 23 (37.7) 4 (19) 47 (27.5)  
Marital status      
    Married/cohabiting 125 (49.6) 28 (45.9) 11 (55) 86 (50.3) 0.74 
    Single/divorced/widowed 127 (50.4) 33 (54.1) 9 (45) 85 (49.7)  
Ethnicity      
    White 182 (71.9) 43 (70.5) 15 (71.4) 124 (72.5) 0.95 
    Black/Asian/other 71 (28.1) 18 (29.5) 6 (28.6) 47 (27.5)  
Current smoking status      
    Non- or ex-smoker 213 (84.2) 48 (78.7) 20 (95.2) 145 (84.8) 0.19 
    Smoker 40 (15.8) 13 (21.3) 1 (4.8) 26 (15.2)  
Alcohol problems      
    AUDIT <8 214 (88.1) 52 (89.7) 18 (90) 144 (87.3) 0.86 
    AUDIT ≥8 29 (11.9) 6 (10.3) 2 (10) 21 (12.7)  
Type of diabetes      
    Type 1 43 (17.0) 14 (23.0) 2 (9.5) 27 (15.8) 0.28 
    Type 2 210 (83) 47 (77.0) 19 (90.5) 144 (84.2)  
Microvascular complications      
    None 32 (12.6) 6 (9.8) 1 (4.8) 25 (14.6) 0.33 
    One or more 221 (87.4) 55 (90.2) 20 (95.2) 146 (85.4)  
Macrovascular complications      
    None 185 (73.1) 48 (78.7) 11 (52.4) 126 (73.7) 0.06 
    One or more 68 (26.9) 13 (21.3) 10 (47.6) 45 (26.3)  
Mean duration of diabetes (years) 14.7 ± 13.2 13.0 ± 10.4 19 ± 18 14.7 ± 13.4 0.2 
Mean duration of ulcer (months) 3.1 ± 3.6 3.1 ± 3.4 2.6 ± 3.5 3.2 ± 3.7 0.77 
Mean A1C (%) 8.2 ± 1.7 8.5 ± 1.8 7.5 ± 1.7 8.2 ± 1.7 0.12 
University of Texas severity of ulcer      
    Superficial (grade 1) 188 (74.3) 38 (62.3) 7 (33.3) 35 (20.5) 0.02 
    Deep ulcer (grade 2 or 3) 65 (25.7) 23 (37.7) 14 (66.7) 136 (79.5)  
Mean ulcer size (cm23.2 ± 6.7 4.7 ± 10.5 5.5 ± 8.5 2.3 ± 4 0.01 
Vibration perception threshold (volts)      
    <25 47 (18.6) 11 (18.0) 1 (4.8) 35 (20.5) 0.22 
    ≥25 206 (81.4) 50 (82.0) 20 (95.2) 136 (79.5)  
Arm-to-ankle ratio      
    ≥0.9 193 (76.3) 44 (72.1) 16 (76.2) 133 (77.8) 0.67 
    ≥0.5 to <0.9 60 (23.7) 17 (27.9) 5 (23.8) 38 (22.2)  
Total populationMajor depressive disorderMinor depressive disorderNo depressive disorderP value*
n 253 61 21 171  
Mean age (years) 62.0 ± 13.9 57.4 ± 14.5 65.2 ± 13.6 63.3 ± 13.4 0.01 
Sex      
    Female 92 (36.4) 26 (42.6) 7 (33.3) 59 (34.5) 0.50 
    Male 161 (63.6) 35 (57.4) 14 (66.7) 112 (65.5)  
Social class      
    I/II 85 (33.6) 16 (26.2) 9 (42.9) 60 (35.1) 0.40 
    III 94 (37.2) 22 (36.1) 8 (38.1) 64 (37.4)  
    IV/V 74 (29.2) 23 (37.7) 4 (19) 47 (27.5)  
Marital status      
    Married/cohabiting 125 (49.6) 28 (45.9) 11 (55) 86 (50.3) 0.74 
    Single/divorced/widowed 127 (50.4) 33 (54.1) 9 (45) 85 (49.7)  
Ethnicity      
    White 182 (71.9) 43 (70.5) 15 (71.4) 124 (72.5) 0.95 
    Black/Asian/other 71 (28.1) 18 (29.5) 6 (28.6) 47 (27.5)  
Current smoking status      
    Non- or ex-smoker 213 (84.2) 48 (78.7) 20 (95.2) 145 (84.8) 0.19 
    Smoker 40 (15.8) 13 (21.3) 1 (4.8) 26 (15.2)  
Alcohol problems      
    AUDIT <8 214 (88.1) 52 (89.7) 18 (90) 144 (87.3) 0.86 
    AUDIT ≥8 29 (11.9) 6 (10.3) 2 (10) 21 (12.7)  
Type of diabetes      
    Type 1 43 (17.0) 14 (23.0) 2 (9.5) 27 (15.8) 0.28 
    Type 2 210 (83) 47 (77.0) 19 (90.5) 144 (84.2)  
Microvascular complications      
    None 32 (12.6) 6 (9.8) 1 (4.8) 25 (14.6) 0.33 
    One or more 221 (87.4) 55 (90.2) 20 (95.2) 146 (85.4)  
Macrovascular complications      
    None 185 (73.1) 48 (78.7) 11 (52.4) 126 (73.7) 0.06 
    One or more 68 (26.9) 13 (21.3) 10 (47.6) 45 (26.3)  
Mean duration of diabetes (years) 14.7 ± 13.2 13.0 ± 10.4 19 ± 18 14.7 ± 13.4 0.2 
Mean duration of ulcer (months) 3.1 ± 3.6 3.1 ± 3.4 2.6 ± 3.5 3.2 ± 3.7 0.77 
Mean A1C (%) 8.2 ± 1.7 8.5 ± 1.8 7.5 ± 1.7 8.2 ± 1.7 0.12 
University of Texas severity of ulcer      
    Superficial (grade 1) 188 (74.3) 38 (62.3) 7 (33.3) 35 (20.5) 0.02 
    Deep ulcer (grade 2 or 3) 65 (25.7) 23 (37.7) 14 (66.7) 136 (79.5)  
Mean ulcer size (cm23.2 ± 6.7 4.7 ± 10.5 5.5 ± 8.5 2.3 ± 4 0.01 
Vibration perception threshold (volts)      
    <25 47 (18.6) 11 (18.0) 1 (4.8) 35 (20.5) 0.22 
    ≥25 206 (81.4) 50 (82.0) 20 (95.2) 136 (79.5)  
Arm-to-ankle ratio      
    ≥0.9 193 (76.3) 44 (72.1) 16 (76.2) 133 (77.8) 0.67 
    ≥0.5 to <0.9 60 (23.7) 17 (27.9) 5 (23.8) 38 (22.2)  

Data are means ± SD or n (%).

*

χ2 Test for categorical variables or t test for continuous variables.

Social class occupations: I, professional; II, managerial; III, skilled; IV, semiskilled; and V, unskilled. AUDIT, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test.

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