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Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of the ALLHAT antihypertensive component participants, excluding those with diabetes at baseline

Participants with metabolic syndromeParticipants without metabolic syndrome
Number randomized 8,013 9,502 
Age* 66.0 ± 7.3 68.0 ± 8.1 
    <65 years 3,770 (47.1) 3,555 (37.4) 
    ≥65 years 4,243 (52.9) 5,947 (62.6) 
Black* 1,932 (24.1) 3,607 (38.0) 
Women 3,652 (45.6) 4,157 (43.7) 
Years of education* 11.3 ± 3.9 11.0 ± 4.1 
Antihypertensive treatment 7,188 (89.7) 8,400 (88.4) 
SBP (mmHg)* 145.6 ± 15.6 146.5 ± 15.8 
DBP (mmHg) 84.7 ± 10.1 84.7 ± 9.9 
Eligibility risk factors   
    Cigarette smoker* 1,937 (24.2) 2,849 (30.0) 
    Atherosclerotic CVD§ 4,898 (61.1) 5,942 (62.5) 
    History of MI or stroke 2,124 (26.5) 2,554 (26.9) 
    History of coronary revascularization* 1,291 (16.1) 1,267 (13.3) 
    Other ASCVD 2,339 (29.2) 2,801 (29.5) 
    ST-T wave 976 (12.2) 1,199 (12.6) 
    HDL cholesterol <35 mg/dl* 1,727 (21.5) 647 (6.8) 
    Left ventricular hypertrophy* 1,688 (21.1) 2,650 (27.9) 
History of CHD at baseline 2,451 (30.8) 2,691 (28.5) 
    n 7,955 9,435 
BMI (kg/m2)* 31.5 ± 5.9 26.5 ± 4.7 
Fasting glucose* 97.3 ± 12.1 89.4 ± 9.9 
    n 6,993 7,850 
    <100 mg/dl* 3,941 (56.4) 7,019 (89.4) 
    100–125 mg/dl* 3,052 (43.6) 831 (10.6) 
Cardiovascular metabolic syndrome risk factors   
    Fasting glucose ≥100 mg/dl* 3,052 (43.6) 831 (10.6) 
    n 6,993 7,850 
    BMI ≥30 kg/m2* 4,835 (60.4) 1,334 (14.1) 
    n 8,001 9,489 
    Fasting triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl* 5,349 (74.1) 1,074 (13.1) 
    n 7,214 8,168 
    Low HDL cholesterol* 6,348 (79.2) 1,266 (13.3) 
    n 8,012 9,502 
    High blood pressure 8,013 (100.0) 9,502 (100.0) 
Lipid trial participants 2,041 (25.5) 2,560 (26.9) 
Participants with metabolic syndromeParticipants without metabolic syndrome
Number randomized 8,013 9,502 
Age* 66.0 ± 7.3 68.0 ± 8.1 
    <65 years 3,770 (47.1) 3,555 (37.4) 
    ≥65 years 4,243 (52.9) 5,947 (62.6) 
Black* 1,932 (24.1) 3,607 (38.0) 
Women 3,652 (45.6) 4,157 (43.7) 
Years of education* 11.3 ± 3.9 11.0 ± 4.1 
Antihypertensive treatment 7,188 (89.7) 8,400 (88.4) 
SBP (mmHg)* 145.6 ± 15.6 146.5 ± 15.8 
DBP (mmHg) 84.7 ± 10.1 84.7 ± 9.9 
Eligibility risk factors   
    Cigarette smoker* 1,937 (24.2) 2,849 (30.0) 
    Atherosclerotic CVD§ 4,898 (61.1) 5,942 (62.5) 
    History of MI or stroke 2,124 (26.5) 2,554 (26.9) 
    History of coronary revascularization* 1,291 (16.1) 1,267 (13.3) 
    Other ASCVD 2,339 (29.2) 2,801 (29.5) 
    ST-T wave 976 (12.2) 1,199 (12.6) 
    HDL cholesterol <35 mg/dl* 1,727 (21.5) 647 (6.8) 
    Left ventricular hypertrophy* 1,688 (21.1) 2,650 (27.9) 
History of CHD at baseline 2,451 (30.8) 2,691 (28.5) 
    n 7,955 9,435 
BMI (kg/m2)* 31.5 ± 5.9 26.5 ± 4.7 
Fasting glucose* 97.3 ± 12.1 89.4 ± 9.9 
    n 6,993 7,850 
    <100 mg/dl* 3,941 (56.4) 7,019 (89.4) 
    100–125 mg/dl* 3,052 (43.6) 831 (10.6) 
Cardiovascular metabolic syndrome risk factors   
    Fasting glucose ≥100 mg/dl* 3,052 (43.6) 831 (10.6) 
    n 6,993 7,850 
    BMI ≥30 kg/m2* 4,835 (60.4) 1,334 (14.1) 
    n 8,001 9,489 
    Fasting triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl* 5,349 (74.1) 1,074 (13.1) 
    n 7,214 8,168 
    Low HDL cholesterol* 6,348 (79.2) 1,266 (13.3) 
    n 8,012 9,502 
    High blood pressure 8,013 (100.0) 9,502 (100.0) 
Lipid trial participants 2,041 (25.5) 2,560 (26.9) 

Data are means ± SD or n (%).

*

P < 0.001;

P < 0.05.

For trial eligibility, participants had to have at least one other risk factor in addition to hypertension. Thus, the indicated risk factors are not mutually exclusive or exhaustive and may not represent prevalence.

§

History of MI or stroke; history of coronary revascularization; major ST-segment depression on T-wave inversion on any electrocardiogram in the past 2 years; other ASCVD (history of angina pectoris; history of intermittent claudication, gangrene, or ischemic ulcers; history of transient ischemic attack; coronary, peripheral vascular, or carotid stenosis 50% or more documented by angiography or Doppler studies; ischemic heart disease documented by reversible or fixed ischemia on stress thalium or dipyridamole thalium, ST depression ≥1 mm for ≥1 min on exercise testing or Holter monitoring; reversible wall motion abnormality on stress echocardiogram; ankle-arm index <0.9; abdominal aortic aneurysm detected by ultrasonography, computed tomography scan, or X-ray; carotid or femoral bruits).

HDL <40 mg/dl in men, <50 in women.

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