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Table 1—

Comparative prospective studies of depression and incident type 2 diabetes

AuthorFollow-upIncident n/Total nSample sourceSample composition*Depression assessmentDiabetes assessmentSelected estimate (95% CI)Statistical adjustment for selected estimate†
Eaton et al. (17) 13 years 89/1,920 Population based Age: ≥18 years Diagnostic Interview Schedule Self-report 2.23 (0.90–5.55) Age, sex, race, and BMI 
    63% F     
    34% B     
Kawakami et al. (26) 8 years 41/2,380 Occupation based Age: ≥18 years Zung Self-Report Depression Scale OGTT 2.32 (1.06–5.08) Age 
    Only men     
    100% A     
Stellato et al. (21) 9 years 54/1,156 Population based Age: 40–70 years CES-D Self-report 3.09 (1.34–7.12) Free testosterone, SHBG, hypertension, heart disease, and BMI 
    Only men     
    97% W     
Carnethon et al. (18) 15.6 years 369/6,190 Population based Age: 25–74 years General Well-Being Scale Self-report, MRD, death certificate 2.52 (1.73–3.67) Age, race, and sex 
    59% F     
    15% B     
Arroyo et al. (14) 4 years 973/72,178 Occupation based Age: 45–72 years Short-Form 36 Self-report 1.55 (1.27–1.90) Age 
    Only women     
    ∼100% W     
Everson-Rose et al. (19) 3 years 96/2,662 Population based Age: 42–52 years CES-D Self-report, FPG 1.66 (1.05–2.61) Age, study site, race, education, and medication use 
    Only women     
    47% W     
Golden et al. (22) 6 years 721/11,615 Population based Age: 48–67 years Vital Exhaustion Questionnaire Self-report, FSG 1.63 (1.31–2.02) Age, sex, race, study site, and education 
    56% F     
    22% B     
Kumari et al. (27) 10.5 years 361/10,308 Occupation based Age: 35–55 years General Health Questionnaire Self-report, OGTT 1.14 (0.83–1.57) Age, sex, length of follow-up, ethnicity, electrocardiogram abnormalities, and employment grade 
    44% F     
    ∼95% W     
Palinkas et al. (28) 8 years 79/971 Population based Age: ≥50 years BDI OGTT, FPG, non-FPG 2.50 (1.29–4.87) Age, sex, physical activity, and BMI 
    57% F     
    100% W     
van den Akker et al. (20) 15 years 3,245/68,004 Clinic network Age: ≥20 years International Classification of Health Problems in Primary Care (ICHPPC-2) MRD 1.04 (0.84–1.28) Age, sex, BMI, socioeconomic status, and interaction of depression*age*sex 
    58% F     
         
Mallon et al. (23) 12 years 88/2,663 Population based Age: 45–65 years Self-reported dysphoria Self-report 1.47 (0.48–4.47) Age 
    53% F     
Carnethon et al. (24) 8 years 147/4,681 Population based Age: ≥65 years CES-D Diabetes medication use or FPG 1.63 (1.12–2.36) Age, race, and sex 
    59% F     
    13% B     
Engum (25) 10 years 653/37,291 Population based Age: ≥30 years Anxiety and Depression Index Self-report, confirmed with FPG 1.51 (1.27–1.80) Age, sex, education, and marital status 
    55% F     
AuthorFollow-upIncident n/Total nSample sourceSample composition*Depression assessmentDiabetes assessmentSelected estimate (95% CI)Statistical adjustment for selected estimate†
Eaton et al. (17) 13 years 89/1,920 Population based Age: ≥18 years Diagnostic Interview Schedule Self-report 2.23 (0.90–5.55) Age, sex, race, and BMI 
    63% F     
    34% B     
Kawakami et al. (26) 8 years 41/2,380 Occupation based Age: ≥18 years Zung Self-Report Depression Scale OGTT 2.32 (1.06–5.08) Age 
    Only men     
    100% A     
Stellato et al. (21) 9 years 54/1,156 Population based Age: 40–70 years CES-D Self-report 3.09 (1.34–7.12) Free testosterone, SHBG, hypertension, heart disease, and BMI 
    Only men     
    97% W     
Carnethon et al. (18) 15.6 years 369/6,190 Population based Age: 25–74 years General Well-Being Scale Self-report, MRD, death certificate 2.52 (1.73–3.67) Age, race, and sex 
    59% F     
    15% B     
Arroyo et al. (14) 4 years 973/72,178 Occupation based Age: 45–72 years Short-Form 36 Self-report 1.55 (1.27–1.90) Age 
    Only women     
    ∼100% W     
Everson-Rose et al. (19) 3 years 96/2,662 Population based Age: 42–52 years CES-D Self-report, FPG 1.66 (1.05–2.61) Age, study site, race, education, and medication use 
    Only women     
    47% W     
Golden et al. (22) 6 years 721/11,615 Population based Age: 48–67 years Vital Exhaustion Questionnaire Self-report, FSG 1.63 (1.31–2.02) Age, sex, race, study site, and education 
    56% F     
    22% B     
Kumari et al. (27) 10.5 years 361/10,308 Occupation based Age: 35–55 years General Health Questionnaire Self-report, OGTT 1.14 (0.83–1.57) Age, sex, length of follow-up, ethnicity, electrocardiogram abnormalities, and employment grade 
    44% F     
    ∼95% W     
Palinkas et al. (28) 8 years 79/971 Population based Age: ≥50 years BDI OGTT, FPG, non-FPG 2.50 (1.29–4.87) Age, sex, physical activity, and BMI 
    57% F     
    100% W     
van den Akker et al. (20) 15 years 3,245/68,004 Clinic network Age: ≥20 years International Classification of Health Problems in Primary Care (ICHPPC-2) MRD 1.04 (0.84–1.28) Age, sex, BMI, socioeconomic status, and interaction of depression*age*sex 
    58% F     
         
Mallon et al. (23) 12 years 88/2,663 Population based Age: 45–65 years Self-reported dysphoria Self-report 1.47 (0.48–4.47) Age 
    53% F     
Carnethon et al. (24) 8 years 147/4,681 Population based Age: ≥65 years CES-D Diabetes medication use or FPG 1.63 (1.12–2.36) Age, race, and sex 
    59% F     
    13% B     
Engum (25) 10 years 653/37,291 Population based Age: ≥30 years Anxiety and Depression Index Self-report, confirmed with FPG 1.51 (1.27–1.80) Age, sex, education, and marital status 
    55% F     
*

Racial/ethnic composition not provided for some studies: A, Asian; B, African American; F, female; W, non-Hispanic white. BDI, Beck Depression Inventory; CES-D, Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; MRD, medical record diagnosis; OGTT, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test; SHBG, sex hormone–binding globulin.

Selected estimate refers to estimate that is most closely adjusted for only demographic characteristics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic indicators, and marital status) and is the estimate used in the pooled analyses and are depicted in Figure 1. Estimates for Mallon et al. (23) and Kumari et al. (24) derived from pooled random-effects models across sex.

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