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Table 2—

Comparative prospective studies of type 2 diabetes and incident depression

Author (year)Follow-upIncident n/Total nSample sourceSample composition*Depression assessmentDiabetes assessmentSelected estimate (95% CI)Statistical adjustment of selected estimate
Palinkas et al. (28) 8 years 118/971 Population-based Age: ≥50 years BDI 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, FPG, non-FPG 0.73 (0.41–1.30) Age, sex, physical activity, and BMI 
    57% F     
    100% W     
Polsky et al. (37) 6 years 571/8,387 Population-based Age: 51–61 years CES-D Self-report 1.17 (0.98–1.41) Age, sex, race, marital status, education, wealth, income, self-rated health, disability, baseline CES-D, and chronic conditions 
    52% F     
    87% W     
Brown et al. (38) 12 years 2,534/88,776 Population-based health care registry Age: ≥20 years 1) Rx for antidepressant and 2) depression-related claim (ICD-9 code 296, 309, or 311) within ±3 months of Rx 1) Two or more diabetes-related claims within a 2-year period (ICD-9 code 250), or 2) diabetes-related hospitalization, or 3) hypoglycemic prescription 1.04 (0.94–1.15) Age, sex, number of MD visits, comorbid arthritis, cancer and vascular disease, and insulin use 
    53% F     
de Jonge et al. (30) 5 years 231/4,803 Population-based Age: ≥55 years GMS-AGECAT Self-report 1.42 (1.04–1.93) Age and sex 
    58% F     
Kim et al. (29) 2 years 63/521 Population-based Age: ≥65 years GMS-AGECAT Self-report 1.0 (0.4–2.5) Unadjusted 
    55% F     
    100% A     
Engum (25) 10 years 2,303/7,291 Population-based Age: ≥30 years Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale–Depression subscale Self-report, confirmed with FPG 1.24 (0.78–1.98) Age, sex, education, and marital status 
    55% F     
Maraldi et al. (39) 5.9 years 594/2,522 Population-based Age: 70–79 years CES-D or self-reported antidepressant use Self-report diagnosis/ hypoglycemic medication use or FPG 1.31 (1.07–1.61) Adjusted for age, sex, race, study site, and baseline CES-D 
    48% F     
    56% W     
Author (year)Follow-upIncident n/Total nSample sourceSample composition*Depression assessmentDiabetes assessmentSelected estimate (95% CI)Statistical adjustment of selected estimate
Palinkas et al. (28) 8 years 118/971 Population-based Age: ≥50 years BDI 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, FPG, non-FPG 0.73 (0.41–1.30) Age, sex, physical activity, and BMI 
    57% F     
    100% W     
Polsky et al. (37) 6 years 571/8,387 Population-based Age: 51–61 years CES-D Self-report 1.17 (0.98–1.41) Age, sex, race, marital status, education, wealth, income, self-rated health, disability, baseline CES-D, and chronic conditions 
    52% F     
    87% W     
Brown et al. (38) 12 years 2,534/88,776 Population-based health care registry Age: ≥20 years 1) Rx for antidepressant and 2) depression-related claim (ICD-9 code 296, 309, or 311) within ±3 months of Rx 1) Two or more diabetes-related claims within a 2-year period (ICD-9 code 250), or 2) diabetes-related hospitalization, or 3) hypoglycemic prescription 1.04 (0.94–1.15) Age, sex, number of MD visits, comorbid arthritis, cancer and vascular disease, and insulin use 
    53% F     
de Jonge et al. (30) 5 years 231/4,803 Population-based Age: ≥55 years GMS-AGECAT Self-report 1.42 (1.04–1.93) Age and sex 
    58% F     
Kim et al. (29) 2 years 63/521 Population-based Age: ≥65 years GMS-AGECAT Self-report 1.0 (0.4–2.5) Unadjusted 
    55% F     
    100% A     
Engum (25) 10 years 2,303/7,291 Population-based Age: ≥30 years Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale–Depression subscale Self-report, confirmed with FPG 1.24 (0.78–1.98) Age, sex, education, and marital status 
    55% F     
Maraldi et al. (39) 5.9 years 594/2,522 Population-based Age: 70–79 years CES-D or self-reported antidepressant use Self-report diagnosis/ hypoglycemic medication use or FPG 1.31 (1.07–1.61) Adjusted for age, sex, race, study site, and baseline CES-D 
    48% F     
    56% W     
*

Racial/ethnic composition not provided for some studies: A, Asian; B, African American; F, female; W, non-Hispanic white. BDI, Beck Depression Inventory; CES-D, Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; GMS-AGECAT, Geriatric Mental State B3 diagnostic schedule with application of the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer-Assisted Taxonomy algorithm.

Selected estimate refers to estimate that is most closely adjusted for only demographic characteristics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic indicators, and marital status) and is the estimate used in the pooled analyses and is depicted in Figure 1.

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