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Table 3—

Prevalence and adjusted ORs for any unhealthy weight-loss practice, self-perception of overweight, trying to lose weight, and worry about weight by demographic characteristics, BMI categories, glycemic control, and diabetes type among 3,136 youth aged ≥10 years of age with type 1 or type 2 diabetes

%Outcomes for logistic regression models by sex
Any unhealthy weight-loss practices*
Self perception of overweight
Trying to lose weight
Worry about weight§
%OR (95% CI)%OR (95% CI)%OR (95% CI)%OR (95% CI)
Female (n = 1,165)          
    BMI percentile          
        Normal/underweight 53.0 6.4 1.00 (referent) 20.0 1.00 (referent) 24.2 1.00 (referent) 23.7 1.00 (referent) 
        Overweight 23.0 10.0 1.32 (0.84–2.07) 65.6 7.92 (5.93–10.59) 62.6 4.99 (3.80–6.56) 37.9 1.78 (1.36–2.33) 
        Obese 24.0 22.5 2.73 (1.71–4.37) 89.4 34.87 (22.20–54.77) 87.6 19.30 (12.77–29.15) 63.7 4.10 (2.96–5.67) 
    Age category          
        10–12 years 31.6 3.5 1.00 (referent) 30.5 1.00 (referent) 31.3 1.00 (referent) 24.5 1.00 (referent) 
        13–15 years 32.3 8.8 2.09 (1.18–3.70) 46.6 1.56 (1.13–2.15) 50.3 1.86 (1.38–2.52) 38.4 1.58 (1.19–2.10) 
        16–18 years 23.5 19.2 5.03 (2.90–8.71) 61.8 3.41 (2.40–4.86) 61.3 3.06 (2.19–4.26) 43.3 1.81 (1.33–2.46) 
        ≥19 years 12.6 20.7 5.61 (3.07–10.23) 63.6 4.50 (2.93–6.90) 61.1 3.64 (2.43–5.45) 49.8 2.51 (1.74–3.63) 
    Diabetes type          
        Type 1 80.9 7.9 1.00 (referent) 38.8 1.00 (referent) 40.3 1.00 (referent) 30.1 1.00 (referent) 
        Type 2 19.1 24.7 1.82 (1.11–2.99) 83.1 1.56 (0.96–2.53) 81.8 1.49 (0.94–2.37) 64.2 1.56 (1.07–2.25) 
    Glycemic control          
        A1C <8.0% 46.4 9.5 1.00 (referent) 46.9 1.00 (referent) 48.5 1.00 (referent) 35.6 1.00 (referent) 
        A1C 8.0–9.4% 29.9 8.9 1.16 (0.76–1.78) 41.6 0.98 (0.73–1.33) 43.7 1.03 (0.77–1.36) 33.8 1.13 (0.87–1.48) 
        A1C >9.5% 23.7 17.0 1.82 (1.23–2.70) 55.0 1.47 (1.06–2.04) 53.4 1.19 (0.87–1.62) 42.0 1.22 (0.92–1.62) 
Male (n = 1,521)          
    BMI percentile          
        Normal/underweight 61.3 1.7 1.00 (referent) 7.7 1.00 (referent) 9.3 1.00 (referent) 9.5 1.00 (referent) 
        Overweight 18.1 5.5 3.03 (1.44–6.38) 44.4 9.47 (6.69–13.40) 40.0 6.14 (4.41–8.56) 13.5 1.32 (0.87–2.02) 
        Obese 20.6 11.5 4.60 (2.22–9.56) 82.1 44.16 (29.16–66.88) 72.8 20.24 (13.98–29.32) 34.5 3.28 (2.24–4.82) 
    Age category          
        10–12 years 29.4 2.7 1.00 (referent) 26.9 1.00 (referent) 28.0 1.00 (referent) 14.5 1.00 (referent) 
        13–15 years 33.8 3.7 1.05 (0.49–2.26) 30.4 1.07 (0.73–1.55) 29.4 0.92 (0.66–1.30) 15.4 0.89 (0.61–1.30) 
        16–18 years 24.9 5.0 1.32 (0.60–2.89) 31.9 1.32 (0.87–2.01) 26.4 0.75 (0.51–1.10) 14.3 0.71 (0.46–1.09) 
        ≥19 years 11.9 9.4 2.45 (1.04–5.77) 29.8 1.62 (0.96–2.73) 27.1 1.06 (0.65–1.73) 19.9 1.17 (0.71–1.94) 
    Diabetes type          
        Type 1 88.0 2.7 1.00 (referent) 23.1 1.00 (referent) 22.2 1.00 (referent) 12.0 1.00 (referent) 
        Type 2 12.0 16.9 2.28 (1.09–4.75) 77.6 2.99 (1.72–5.20) 70.0 2.47 (1.52–4.01) 40.4 2.04 (1.29–3.22) 
    Glycemic control          
        A1C <8.0% 50.6 4.4 1.00 (referent) 33.0 1.00 (referent) 30.7 1.00 (referent) 14.7 1.00 (referent) 
        A1C 8.0–9.4% 29.5 2.7 0.87 (0.43–1.76) 27.2 1.06 (0.75–1.49) 26.8 1.17 (0.85–1.61) 14.3 1.33 (0.93–1.91) 
        A1C >9.5% 19.9 6.9 1.49 (0.78–2.82) 24.8 0.79 (0.52–1.20) 22.8 0.80 (0.54–1.20) 18.8 1.31 (0.88–1.96) 
%Outcomes for logistic regression models by sex
Any unhealthy weight-loss practices*
Self perception of overweight
Trying to lose weight
Worry about weight§
%OR (95% CI)%OR (95% CI)%OR (95% CI)%OR (95% CI)
Female (n = 1,165)          
    BMI percentile          
        Normal/underweight 53.0 6.4 1.00 (referent) 20.0 1.00 (referent) 24.2 1.00 (referent) 23.7 1.00 (referent) 
        Overweight 23.0 10.0 1.32 (0.84–2.07) 65.6 7.92 (5.93–10.59) 62.6 4.99 (3.80–6.56) 37.9 1.78 (1.36–2.33) 
        Obese 24.0 22.5 2.73 (1.71–4.37) 89.4 34.87 (22.20–54.77) 87.6 19.30 (12.77–29.15) 63.7 4.10 (2.96–5.67) 
    Age category          
        10–12 years 31.6 3.5 1.00 (referent) 30.5 1.00 (referent) 31.3 1.00 (referent) 24.5 1.00 (referent) 
        13–15 years 32.3 8.8 2.09 (1.18–3.70) 46.6 1.56 (1.13–2.15) 50.3 1.86 (1.38–2.52) 38.4 1.58 (1.19–2.10) 
        16–18 years 23.5 19.2 5.03 (2.90–8.71) 61.8 3.41 (2.40–4.86) 61.3 3.06 (2.19–4.26) 43.3 1.81 (1.33–2.46) 
        ≥19 years 12.6 20.7 5.61 (3.07–10.23) 63.6 4.50 (2.93–6.90) 61.1 3.64 (2.43–5.45) 49.8 2.51 (1.74–3.63) 
    Diabetes type          
        Type 1 80.9 7.9 1.00 (referent) 38.8 1.00 (referent) 40.3 1.00 (referent) 30.1 1.00 (referent) 
        Type 2 19.1 24.7 1.82 (1.11–2.99) 83.1 1.56 (0.96–2.53) 81.8 1.49 (0.94–2.37) 64.2 1.56 (1.07–2.25) 
    Glycemic control          
        A1C <8.0% 46.4 9.5 1.00 (referent) 46.9 1.00 (referent) 48.5 1.00 (referent) 35.6 1.00 (referent) 
        A1C 8.0–9.4% 29.9 8.9 1.16 (0.76–1.78) 41.6 0.98 (0.73–1.33) 43.7 1.03 (0.77–1.36) 33.8 1.13 (0.87–1.48) 
        A1C >9.5% 23.7 17.0 1.82 (1.23–2.70) 55.0 1.47 (1.06–2.04) 53.4 1.19 (0.87–1.62) 42.0 1.22 (0.92–1.62) 
Male (n = 1,521)          
    BMI percentile          
        Normal/underweight 61.3 1.7 1.00 (referent) 7.7 1.00 (referent) 9.3 1.00 (referent) 9.5 1.00 (referent) 
        Overweight 18.1 5.5 3.03 (1.44–6.38) 44.4 9.47 (6.69–13.40) 40.0 6.14 (4.41–8.56) 13.5 1.32 (0.87–2.02) 
        Obese 20.6 11.5 4.60 (2.22–9.56) 82.1 44.16 (29.16–66.88) 72.8 20.24 (13.98–29.32) 34.5 3.28 (2.24–4.82) 
    Age category          
        10–12 years 29.4 2.7 1.00 (referent) 26.9 1.00 (referent) 28.0 1.00 (referent) 14.5 1.00 (referent) 
        13–15 years 33.8 3.7 1.05 (0.49–2.26) 30.4 1.07 (0.73–1.55) 29.4 0.92 (0.66–1.30) 15.4 0.89 (0.61–1.30) 
        16–18 years 24.9 5.0 1.32 (0.60–2.89) 31.9 1.32 (0.87–2.01) 26.4 0.75 (0.51–1.10) 14.3 0.71 (0.46–1.09) 
        ≥19 years 11.9 9.4 2.45 (1.04–5.77) 29.8 1.62 (0.96–2.73) 27.1 1.06 (0.65–1.73) 19.9 1.17 (0.71–1.94) 
    Diabetes type          
        Type 1 88.0 2.7 1.00 (referent) 23.1 1.00 (referent) 22.2 1.00 (referent) 12.0 1.00 (referent) 
        Type 2 12.0 16.9 2.28 (1.09–4.75) 77.6 2.99 (1.72–5.20) 70.0 2.47 (1.52–4.01) 40.4 2.04 (1.29–3.22) 
    Glycemic control          
        A1C <8.0% 50.6 4.4 1.00 (referent) 33.0 1.00 (referent) 30.7 1.00 (referent) 14.7 1.00 (referent) 
        A1C 8.0–9.4% 29.5 2.7 0.87 (0.43–1.76) 27.2 1.06 (0.75–1.49) 26.8 1.17 (0.85–1.61) 14.3 1.33 (0.93–1.91) 
        A1C >9.5% 19.9 6.9 1.49 (0.78–2.82) 24.8 0.79 (0.52–1.20) 22.8 0.80 (0.54–1.20) 18.8 1.31 (0.88–1.96) 
*

Includes 179 females and 67 males who reported ever having tried to lose weight through fasting, using diet pills without a physician's prescription, vomiting or laxative use, or skipping insulin versus all other youth.

Includes 763 female and 451 male youth who describe themselves as slightly or very overweight.

Includes 779 female and 425 male youth who reported that they were trying to lose weight.

§

Includes 510 female and 234 male youth reported that they worried about their weight.

ORs are adjusted for race/ethnicity as well as all other variables in the model as shown in each column.

A1C was measured at the study visit and categorized as good (A1C <8.0%), marginal (8.0–9.4%), and poor (≥9.5%) glycemic control using the American Diabetes Association recommendations (20).

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