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Table 1—

Baseline characteristics by quartile of ACR

CharacteristicsQuartiles of ACR
Correlation coefficientP value*
1234
n 797 797 797 797   
ACR (mg/g) 3.0 (0.7–3.7) 4.6 (3.7–5.5) 7.1 (5.5–9.7) 16.5 (9.7–1578)   
Age (years) 50.0 ± 10.6 50.3 ± 10.3 50.7 ± 10.5 51.5 ± 11.1 0.04 0.02 
Sex (% male) 41.3 34.1 25.5 28.4 — <0.01 
Race (as row %)     — 0.77 
    White 23.7 25.3 26.9 24.1   
    Black 31.4 20.2 21.8 26.7   
    Hispanic 23.0 26.6 25.9 24.5   
    Native American 23.0 30.3 20.4 26.3   
    Asian 22.4 22.4 30.6 24.7   
Family history of diabetes (% yes) 70.8 70.9 68.3 68.4 — 0.94 
History of gestational diabetes (% yes) 16.0 15.8 15.3 17.2 — 0.78 
BMI (kg/m233 ± 6 34 ± 7 34 ± 6 35 ± 7 0.09 <0.01 
Waist circumference (cm) 105 ± 13 104 ± 15 104 ± 14 107 ± 15 0.07 <0.01 
Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 107 ± 9 106 ± 8 106 ± 8 107 ± 8 <−0.01 0.94 
2-h OGTT (mg/dl) 165 ± 17 164 ± 17 164 ± 17 166 ± 17 0.03 0.06 
Fasting insulin (pmol/l) 25 ± 13 26 ± 14 27 ± 16 29 ± 17 0.08 <0.01 
A1C (%) 5.9 ± 0.5 5.9 ± 0.5 5.9 ± 0.5 6.0 ± 0.5 0.05 0.01 
Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance 6.6 ± 3.6 7.0 ± 3.9 7.0 ± 4.4 7.7 ± 4.7 0.07 <0.01 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 120 ± 14 122 ± 14 124 ± 14 129 ± 16 0.2 <0.01 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 77 ± 9 77 ± 9 78 ± 9 81 ± 10 0.1 <0.01 
Smoking (%) 7.9 5.5 5.5 8.8 — 0.27 
Serum creatinine (mg/dl) 0.83 ± 0.17 0.78 ± 0.17 0.76 ± 0.16 0.76 ± 0.18 −0.16 <0.01 
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 203 ± 36 202 ± 37 205 ± 36 204 ± 37 0.02 0.21 
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 160 ± 89 164 ± 91 160 ± 92 171 ± 111 0.01 0.47 
Medication usage (%)       
    ACE inhibitor 6.1 6.5 8.3 10.2 — <0.01 
    Angiotensin receptor blocker 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.0 — 0.91 
    Calcium channel blocker 5.5 5.1 6.9 12.0 — <0.01 
    Diuretic 1.8 2.0 1.8 1.9 — 0.50 
Study randomization (%)     — 0.75 
    Lifestyle 32.4 34.8 31.5 34.9   
    Metformin 35.9 30.2 32.7 33.4   
    Placebo 31.7 35.0 35.8 31.7   
CharacteristicsQuartiles of ACR
Correlation coefficientP value*
1234
n 797 797 797 797   
ACR (mg/g) 3.0 (0.7–3.7) 4.6 (3.7–5.5) 7.1 (5.5–9.7) 16.5 (9.7–1578)   
Age (years) 50.0 ± 10.6 50.3 ± 10.3 50.7 ± 10.5 51.5 ± 11.1 0.04 0.02 
Sex (% male) 41.3 34.1 25.5 28.4 — <0.01 
Race (as row %)     — 0.77 
    White 23.7 25.3 26.9 24.1   
    Black 31.4 20.2 21.8 26.7   
    Hispanic 23.0 26.6 25.9 24.5   
    Native American 23.0 30.3 20.4 26.3   
    Asian 22.4 22.4 30.6 24.7   
Family history of diabetes (% yes) 70.8 70.9 68.3 68.4 — 0.94 
History of gestational diabetes (% yes) 16.0 15.8 15.3 17.2 — 0.78 
BMI (kg/m233 ± 6 34 ± 7 34 ± 6 35 ± 7 0.09 <0.01 
Waist circumference (cm) 105 ± 13 104 ± 15 104 ± 14 107 ± 15 0.07 <0.01 
Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 107 ± 9 106 ± 8 106 ± 8 107 ± 8 <−0.01 0.94 
2-h OGTT (mg/dl) 165 ± 17 164 ± 17 164 ± 17 166 ± 17 0.03 0.06 
Fasting insulin (pmol/l) 25 ± 13 26 ± 14 27 ± 16 29 ± 17 0.08 <0.01 
A1C (%) 5.9 ± 0.5 5.9 ± 0.5 5.9 ± 0.5 6.0 ± 0.5 0.05 0.01 
Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance 6.6 ± 3.6 7.0 ± 3.9 7.0 ± 4.4 7.7 ± 4.7 0.07 <0.01 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 120 ± 14 122 ± 14 124 ± 14 129 ± 16 0.2 <0.01 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 77 ± 9 77 ± 9 78 ± 9 81 ± 10 0.1 <0.01 
Smoking (%) 7.9 5.5 5.5 8.8 — 0.27 
Serum creatinine (mg/dl) 0.83 ± 0.17 0.78 ± 0.17 0.76 ± 0.16 0.76 ± 0.18 −0.16 <0.01 
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 203 ± 36 202 ± 37 205 ± 36 204 ± 37 0.02 0.21 
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 160 ± 89 164 ± 91 160 ± 92 171 ± 111 0.01 0.47 
Medication usage (%)       
    ACE inhibitor 6.1 6.5 8.3 10.2 — <0.01 
    Angiotensin receptor blocker 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.0 — 0.91 
    Calcium channel blocker 5.5 5.1 6.9 12.0 — <0.01 
    Diuretic 1.8 2.0 1.8 1.9 — 0.50 
Study randomization (%)     — 0.75 
    Lifestyle 32.4 34.8 31.5 34.9   
    Metformin 35.9 30.2 32.7 33.4   
    Placebo 31.7 35.0 35.8 31.7   

Data are median (25th–75th quartile) or means ± SD unless indicated otherwise.

*

P values are calculated using Spearman's rank correlation for continuous variables (e.g., age or BMI). For categorical variables (e.g., sex or race), P values are from ANOVA tests using base 2 logarithm of urinary albumin excretion.

Nine of the 60 participants taking diuretics at baseline were taking thiazides, which is a protocol violation.

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