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Table 2—

Relative hazards for developing diabetes in the DPP by quartile of baseline ACR

Study armHRs (95% CI) for quartile of ACR
1 (0.7–3.7 mg/g)2 (3.7–5.5 mg/g)3 (5.5–9.7 mg/g)4 (9.7–1,578 mg/g)
Placebo (n = 1,070)     
    Unadjusted 1.0 0.66 (0.47–0.93) 0.81 (0.58–1.12) 1.01 (0.72–1.37) 
    Adjusted* 1.0 0.51 (0.33–0.79) 0.68 (0.44–1.03) 0.76 (0.50–1.15) 
Lifestyle (n = 1,064)     
    Unadjusted 1.0 1.64 (0.99–2.72) 1.57 (0.93–2.64) 1.85 (1.12–3.06) 
    Adjusted* 1.0 1.56 (0.83–2.93) 1.15 (0.58–2.29) 1.62 (0.84–3.14) 
Metformin (n = 1,054)     
    Unadjusted 1.0 1.21 (0.82–1.78) 1.13 (0.76–1.66) 1.39 (0.96–2.03) 
    Adjusted* 1.0 1.21 (0.76–1.93) 1.03 (0.64–1.64) 0.98 (0.60–1.58) 
Study armHRs (95% CI) for quartile of ACR
1 (0.7–3.7 mg/g)2 (3.7–5.5 mg/g)3 (5.5–9.7 mg/g)4 (9.7–1,578 mg/g)
Placebo (n = 1,070)     
    Unadjusted 1.0 0.66 (0.47–0.93) 0.81 (0.58–1.12) 1.01 (0.72–1.37) 
    Adjusted* 1.0 0.51 (0.33–0.79) 0.68 (0.44–1.03) 0.76 (0.50–1.15) 
Lifestyle (n = 1,064)     
    Unadjusted 1.0 1.64 (0.99–2.72) 1.57 (0.93–2.64) 1.85 (1.12–3.06) 
    Adjusted* 1.0 1.56 (0.83–2.93) 1.15 (0.58–2.29) 1.62 (0.84–3.14) 
Metformin (n = 1,054)     
    Unadjusted 1.0 1.21 (0.82–1.78) 1.13 (0.76–1.66) 1.39 (0.96–2.03) 
    Adjusted* 1.0 1.21 (0.76–1.93) 1.03 (0.64–1.64) 0.98 (0.60–1.58) 

Data are median (range). ACR is calculated as milligrams of albumin/grams of creatinine.

*

Adjusted for baseline: age, sex, race, BMI, waist circumference, fasting insulin, insulin sensitivity/secretion, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, and ACE inhibitor and calcium channel blocker use. Also adjusted are time-dependent changes in weight and physical activity.

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