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Table 1—

Percent with peripheral neuropathy and the odds of having peripheral neuropathy by quintile of total PUFA intake and linolenic acid (C18:3) intake in adults with diagnosed diabetes aged ≥40 years, NHANES 1999–2004

Quintiles of PUFA intake
P
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q5
Total PUFA*       
    With peripheral neuropathy 33.11 (3.69) 28.80 (3.63) 29.06 (3.06) 29.80 (3.67) 19.67 (4.03) 0.20 
    Energy-adjusted odds ratio 1.0 (ref.) 0.76 (0.43–1.32) 0.73 (0.45–1.20) 0.71 (0.38–1.34) 0.36 (0.16–0.82)  
    Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio 1.0 (ref.) 0.83 (0.44–1.52) 0.85 (0.49–1.47) 0.63 (0.31–1.27) 0.43 (0.19–1.00)  
Linolenic acid (C18:3)*         
    With peripheral neuropathy 33.10 (3.84) 23.90 (4.18) 35.47 (3.78) 27.17 (3.75) 20.68 (3.81) 0.12 
    Energy-adjusted odds ratio 1.0 (ref.) 0.61 (0.33–1.15) 1.04 (0.63–1.72) 0.69 (0.40–1.19) 0.46 (0.24–0.90)  
    Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio 1.0 (ref.) 0.57 (0.29–1.11) 0.71 (0.45–1.23) 0.54 (0.30–0.99) 0.40 (0.21–0.77)  
Quintiles of PUFA intake
P
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q5
Total PUFA*       
    With peripheral neuropathy 33.11 (3.69) 28.80 (3.63) 29.06 (3.06) 29.80 (3.67) 19.67 (4.03) 0.20 
    Energy-adjusted odds ratio 1.0 (ref.) 0.76 (0.43–1.32) 0.73 (0.45–1.20) 0.71 (0.38–1.34) 0.36 (0.16–0.82)  
    Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio 1.0 (ref.) 0.83 (0.44–1.52) 0.85 (0.49–1.47) 0.63 (0.31–1.27) 0.43 (0.19–1.00)  
Linolenic acid (C18:3)*         
    With peripheral neuropathy 33.10 (3.84) 23.90 (4.18) 35.47 (3.78) 27.17 (3.75) 20.68 (3.81) 0.12 
    Energy-adjusted odds ratio 1.0 (ref.) 0.61 (0.33–1.15) 1.04 (0.63–1.72) 0.69 (0.40–1.19) 0.46 (0.24–0.90)  
    Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio 1.0 (ref.) 0.57 (0.29–1.11) 0.71 (0.45–1.23) 0.54 (0.30–0.99) 0.40 (0.21–0.77)  

Data are % (SE) and point estimate (95% CI).

*

The quintiles of total PUFA intake were defined as Q1, <7.72 g; Q2, 7.72–11.44 g; Q3, 11.45–16.14 g; Q4, 16.15–24.74 g; and Q5, ≥24.75 g. The quintiles of linolenic acid intake were defined as Q1, <0.61 g, Q2, 0.61–0.91 g; Q3, 0.92–1.34 g; Q4, 1.35–2.10 g; and Q5, ≥2.11 g.

χ2 test.

Adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, height quintile, weight quintile, duration of diabetes, glycemic control, high blood pressure, smoking status, and total energy intake.

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