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Table 2—

Unadjusted and adjusted predicted percents for cost-related medication underuse*

Reported cost-related medication underuse
Unadjusted percent (%)Adjusted predicted percent (95% CI)P value of variable in adjusted model
All participants (n = 5,086) 14 14  
Race/ethnicity   0.048 
    White (reference) (n = 2,452) (13) (10) (8–12)  
    African American (n = 707) 17 11 (8–13)  
    Latino (n = 736) 23 14 (10–18)  
    Asian/Pacific Islander (n = 782) 11 7 (5–10)  
    Other (n = 410) 15 11 (6–15)  
Age (years)   <0.001 
    18–44 24 23 (17–29)  
    45–64 17 15 (13–18)  
    >65 (reference) (10) (6) (5–7)  
Sex   <0.001 
    Female 18 12 (10–14)  
    Male (reference) (11) 8 (7–10)  
Education   0.28 
    Less than high school 15 9 (7–11)  
    High school graduate 17 11 (9–13)  
    Some college or higher (reference) (13) (10) (8–12)  
Annual household income   <0.001 
    <$25,000 20 15 (12–18)  
    $25,000 to $49,999 16 12 (9–14)  
    >$50,000 (reference) (7) (5) (4–7)  
Health status   <0.001 
    Excellent/very good (reference) (8) (7) (5–9)  
    Good 12 9 (7–11)  
    Fair/poor 20 14 (11–16)  
Has prescription drug benefit   <0.001 
    Yes (reference) (13) (9) (8–11)  
    No 19 13 (10–16)  
Number of prescription medications   <0.001 
    One to five medications (reference) (14) (9) (7–11)  
    Six or more medications 15 11 (9–13)  
Aveerage monthly out-of-pocket drug costs   <0.001 
    ≤$50 per month (reference) (9) (7) (5–8)  
    $51 to $100 per month 14 11 (9–14)  
    $101 to $150 per month 20 16 (12–19)  
    > $150 per month 29 24 (20–29)  
Reported cost-related medication underuse
Unadjusted percent (%)Adjusted predicted percent (95% CI)P value of variable in adjusted model
All participants (n = 5,086) 14 14  
Race/ethnicity   0.048 
    White (reference) (n = 2,452) (13) (10) (8–12)  
    African American (n = 707) 17 11 (8–13)  
    Latino (n = 736) 23 14 (10–18)  
    Asian/Pacific Islander (n = 782) 11 7 (5–10)  
    Other (n = 410) 15 11 (6–15)  
Age (years)   <0.001 
    18–44 24 23 (17–29)  
    45–64 17 15 (13–18)  
    >65 (reference) (10) (6) (5–7)  
Sex   <0.001 
    Female 18 12 (10–14)  
    Male (reference) (11) 8 (7–10)  
Education   0.28 
    Less than high school 15 9 (7–11)  
    High school graduate 17 11 (9–13)  
    Some college or higher (reference) (13) (10) (8–12)  
Annual household income   <0.001 
    <$25,000 20 15 (12–18)  
    $25,000 to $49,999 16 12 (9–14)  
    >$50,000 (reference) (7) (5) (4–7)  
Health status   <0.001 
    Excellent/very good (reference) (8) (7) (5–9)  
    Good 12 9 (7–11)  
    Fair/poor 20 14 (11–16)  
Has prescription drug benefit   <0.001 
    Yes (reference) (13) (9) (8–11)  
    No 19 13 (10–16)  
Number of prescription medications   <0.001 
    One to five medications (reference) (14) (9) (7–11)  
    Six or more medications 15 11 (9–13)  
Aveerage monthly out-of-pocket drug costs   <0.001 
    ≤$50 per month (reference) (9) (7) (5–8)  
    $51 to $100 per month 14 11 (9–14)  
    $101 to $150 per month 20 16 (12–19)  
    > $150 per month 29 24 (20–29)  
*

The model included race/ethnicity, income, whether a patient had prescription drug benefits, and average monthly out-of-pocket drug costs as main predictors. The remaining variables were included as covariates (age, sex, education, self-reported health status, and the number of prescription medications). Duration of diabetes and four two-way interaction terms (race/ethnicity by age, sex, income, and out-of-pocket drug costs) were assessed but were not significant and were not included in the final model for reasons of parsimony.

Statistically significant at P < 0.05.

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