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Table 1—

Prevalence of depression as measured by the PHQ-8 among U.S. adults with diabetes aged ≥18 years (2006 BRFSS)

Provisional diagnosis
PHQ score ≥10
nMajor depression*
Minor depression
Major and minor depression
%SE%SE%SE%SE
Total          
    Unadjusted 18,814 7.5 0.4 7.9 0.5 15.4 0.6 14.4 0.6 
    Age adjusted 18,814 8.3 0.5 8.3 0.8 16.6 0.9 17.4 1.1 
Age (years)          
    18–29 230 3.2 1.0 8.3 2.9 11.5 3.1 12.7 3.4 
    30–39 848 13.7 2.0 10.3 1.8 24.0 2.6 27.4 3.1 
    40–49 2,251 11.6 1.1 7.9 1.1 19.5 1.5 21.4 1.8 
    50–59 4,634 10.0 0.8 7.2 0.7 17.2 1.0 17.3 1.0 
    60–69 5,387 5.5 1.0 9.0 1.2 14.5 1.5 11.2 1.2 
    70–79 3,939 4.0 0.9 6.4 0.6 10.4 1.0 8.3 1.0 
    80+ 1,525 2.0 0.7 7.7 1.9 9.7 2.0 5.8 1.0 
Sex§          
    Men 7,896 5.9 0.7 7.1 0.9 13.0 1.1 12.9 1.3 
    Women 10,918 11.1 0.8 9.7 1.3 20.8 1.5 22.4 1.6 
Race/ethnicity§          
    Non-Hispanic white 13,392 9.5 0.7 5.8 0.5 15.3 0.9 17.6 1.3 
    Non-Hispanic black 2,296 5.6 1.0 11.7 2.1 17.3 2.3 13.7 1.6 
    Hispanic 1,775 5.4 0.8 13.0 2.7 18.4 2.8 17.3 3.0 
    Asian 296 1.1 0.6 1.0 0.6 2.1 0.8 3.1 1.3 
    American Indians/Alaska Natives 392 27.8 4.7 5.4 1.7 33.2 4.6 36.0 4.9 
    Other 663 13.2 3.5 16.0 3.6 29.2 4.4 27.7 4.6 
Type of diabetes§          
    Type 1 810 6.3 1.1 7.7 1.3 14.0 1.7 20.4 2.8 
    Type 2, use of insulin 3,759 13.3 1.8 9.4 1.2 22.7 2.2 24.0 2.3 
    Type 2, no use of insulin 12,892 8.3 0.7 8.4 1.2 16.7 1.4 17.3 1.6 
Provisional diagnosis
PHQ score ≥10
nMajor depression*
Minor depression
Major and minor depression
%SE%SE%SE%SE
Total          
    Unadjusted 18,814 7.5 0.4 7.9 0.5 15.4 0.6 14.4 0.6 
    Age adjusted 18,814 8.3 0.5 8.3 0.8 16.6 0.9 17.4 1.1 
Age (years)          
    18–29 230 3.2 1.0 8.3 2.9 11.5 3.1 12.7 3.4 
    30–39 848 13.7 2.0 10.3 1.8 24.0 2.6 27.4 3.1 
    40–49 2,251 11.6 1.1 7.9 1.1 19.5 1.5 21.4 1.8 
    50–59 4,634 10.0 0.8 7.2 0.7 17.2 1.0 17.3 1.0 
    60–69 5,387 5.5 1.0 9.0 1.2 14.5 1.5 11.2 1.2 
    70–79 3,939 4.0 0.9 6.4 0.6 10.4 1.0 8.3 1.0 
    80+ 1,525 2.0 0.7 7.7 1.9 9.7 2.0 5.8 1.0 
Sex§          
    Men 7,896 5.9 0.7 7.1 0.9 13.0 1.1 12.9 1.3 
    Women 10,918 11.1 0.8 9.7 1.3 20.8 1.5 22.4 1.6 
Race/ethnicity§          
    Non-Hispanic white 13,392 9.5 0.7 5.8 0.5 15.3 0.9 17.6 1.3 
    Non-Hispanic black 2,296 5.6 1.0 11.7 2.1 17.3 2.3 13.7 1.6 
    Hispanic 1,775 5.4 0.8 13.0 2.7 18.4 2.8 17.3 3.0 
    Asian 296 1.1 0.6 1.0 0.6 2.1 0.8 3.1 1.3 
    American Indians/Alaska Natives 392 27.8 4.7 5.4 1.7 33.2 4.6 36.0 4.9 
    Other 663 13.2 3.5 16.0 3.6 29.2 4.4 27.7 4.6 
Type of diabetes§          
    Type 1 810 6.3 1.1 7.7 1.3 14.0 1.7 20.4 2.8 
    Type 2, use of insulin 3,759 13.3 1.8 9.4 1.2 22.7 2.2 24.0 2.3 
    Type 2, no use of insulin 12,892 8.3 0.7 8.4 1.2 16.7 1.4 17.3 1.6 
*

Major depression is defined as having at least five of eight PHQ-8 criteria, one of which must be “depressed mood” or “loss of interest or pleasure,” for ≥7 days in the past 2 weeks.

Minor depression is defined as having two to four of the eight PHQ-8 criteria, one of which must be “depressed mood” or “loss of interest or pleasure,” for ≥7 days in the past 2 weeks.

Combining major and minor depression together.

§

Adjusted for age.

Including native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, multiracial, and other race/ethnicity.

Participants with missing data on age at diabetes onset and use of insulin were excluded.

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