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Table 1—

Clinical and biological characteristics at baseline of men and women with and without incident diabetes during the 9 years of the DESIR study

Men
Women
P for variableP for interaction with sex
DiabetesNo diabetesP*DiabetesNo diabetesP*
n 140 1,723  63 1,891    
Age (years) 50 ± 9 47 ± 10 0.0001 52 ± 8 47 ± 10 0.0005 0.0001 0.6 
Diabetes in the family 28 (20) 312 (18) 0.6 27 (43) 368 (19) 0.0001  0.003 
Current smoker 52 (37) 418 (24) 0.0009 10 (16) 249 (13) 0.5 0.001 0.3 
Alcohol intake (g/day)§ 34 ± 32 23 ± 22 0.005 8 ± 11 7 ± 11 0.5 0.006 0.2 
Physical activity         
    Little 43 (31) 422 (24)  22 (35) 465 (25)    
    Moderate 72 (51) 911 (53) 0.07 33 (52) 1036 (55) 0.04 0.03 0.7 
    Intensive 25 (18) 388 (23)  8 (13) 386 (20)    
Waist circumference (cm) 96 ± 10 89 ± 9 0.0001 90 ± 12 76 ± 10 0.0001 0.0001 0.3 
BMI (kg/m2)§ 27.5 ± 4.0 25.1 ± 3.0 0.0001 29.2 ± 5.1 23.7 ± 3.8 0.0001 0.0001 0.3 
Menopause    30 (48) 718 (38) 0.1   
Large baby, birth weight ≥4 kg    16 (27) 284 (15) 0.02   
Hypertension 87 (62) 678 (39) 0.0001 39 (62) 527 (28) 0.0001 0.0001 0.1 
Heart rate (min) 68 ± 10 66 ± 10 0.007 71 ± 11 68 ± 9 0.02 0.0005 0.7 
Treatment for lipids 20 (14) 126 (7) 0.004 9 (14) 129 (7) 0.03 0.0003 0.9 
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)§ 6.05 ± 0.55 5.39 ± 0.49 0.0001 5.96 ± 0.58 5.11 ± 0.46 0.0001 0.0001 0.1 
GGT (IU/l)§ 64.3 ± 67.2 39.5 ± 38.3 0.0001 36.4 ± 33.6 21.7 ± 21.2 0.0001 0.0001 0.4 
ALT (UI/l)§ 41.7 ± 28.3 30.3 ± 18.1 0.0001 28.9 ± 22.2 20.1 ± 13.8 0.0001 0.0001 0.4 
Triglycerides (mmol/l)§ 1.79 ± 1.45 1.26 ± 0.80 0.0001 1.50 ± 0.78 0.93 ± 0.50 0.0001  0.006 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.41 ± 0.37 1.50 ± 0.38 0.01 1.53 ± 0.34 1.80 ± 0.42 0.0001  0.008 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 6.06 ± 1.05 5.82 ± 0.97 0.009 5.94 ± 1.04 5.61 ± 0.96 0.02 0.0001 0.6 
Creatinine (μmol/l) 91.0 ± 13.9 89.1 ± 11.1 0.06 77.1 ± 10.7 74.1 ± 10.0 0.02 0.006 0.4 
White blood cell count (109/l)§ 6.9 ± 2.1 6.4 ± 1.7 0.002 7.3 ± 4.0 6.2 ± 1.6 0.0002 0.0001 0.2 
    n 135 1,617  61 1,782    
Number of TCF7L2 and IL6 deleterious alleles 2.0 1.8 0.008 2.2 1.8 0.03 0.0007 0.7 
Men
Women
P for variableP for interaction with sex
DiabetesNo diabetesP*DiabetesNo diabetesP*
n 140 1,723  63 1,891    
Age (years) 50 ± 9 47 ± 10 0.0001 52 ± 8 47 ± 10 0.0005 0.0001 0.6 
Diabetes in the family 28 (20) 312 (18) 0.6 27 (43) 368 (19) 0.0001  0.003 
Current smoker 52 (37) 418 (24) 0.0009 10 (16) 249 (13) 0.5 0.001 0.3 
Alcohol intake (g/day)§ 34 ± 32 23 ± 22 0.005 8 ± 11 7 ± 11 0.5 0.006 0.2 
Physical activity         
    Little 43 (31) 422 (24)  22 (35) 465 (25)    
    Moderate 72 (51) 911 (53) 0.07 33 (52) 1036 (55) 0.04 0.03 0.7 
    Intensive 25 (18) 388 (23)  8 (13) 386 (20)    
Waist circumference (cm) 96 ± 10 89 ± 9 0.0001 90 ± 12 76 ± 10 0.0001 0.0001 0.3 
BMI (kg/m2)§ 27.5 ± 4.0 25.1 ± 3.0 0.0001 29.2 ± 5.1 23.7 ± 3.8 0.0001 0.0001 0.3 
Menopause    30 (48) 718 (38) 0.1   
Large baby, birth weight ≥4 kg    16 (27) 284 (15) 0.02   
Hypertension 87 (62) 678 (39) 0.0001 39 (62) 527 (28) 0.0001 0.0001 0.1 
Heart rate (min) 68 ± 10 66 ± 10 0.007 71 ± 11 68 ± 9 0.02 0.0005 0.7 
Treatment for lipids 20 (14) 126 (7) 0.004 9 (14) 129 (7) 0.03 0.0003 0.9 
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)§ 6.05 ± 0.55 5.39 ± 0.49 0.0001 5.96 ± 0.58 5.11 ± 0.46 0.0001 0.0001 0.1 
GGT (IU/l)§ 64.3 ± 67.2 39.5 ± 38.3 0.0001 36.4 ± 33.6 21.7 ± 21.2 0.0001 0.0001 0.4 
ALT (UI/l)§ 41.7 ± 28.3 30.3 ± 18.1 0.0001 28.9 ± 22.2 20.1 ± 13.8 0.0001 0.0001 0.4 
Triglycerides (mmol/l)§ 1.79 ± 1.45 1.26 ± 0.80 0.0001 1.50 ± 0.78 0.93 ± 0.50 0.0001  0.006 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.41 ± 0.37 1.50 ± 0.38 0.01 1.53 ± 0.34 1.80 ± 0.42 0.0001  0.008 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 6.06 ± 1.05 5.82 ± 0.97 0.009 5.94 ± 1.04 5.61 ± 0.96 0.02 0.0001 0.6 
Creatinine (μmol/l) 91.0 ± 13.9 89.1 ± 11.1 0.06 77.1 ± 10.7 74.1 ± 10.0 0.02 0.006 0.4 
White blood cell count (109/l)§ 6.9 ± 2.1 6.4 ± 1.7 0.002 7.3 ± 4.0 6.2 ± 1.6 0.0002 0.0001 0.2 
    n 135 1,617  61 1,782    
Number of TCF7L2 and IL6 deleterious alleles 2.0 1.8 0.008 2.2 1.8 0.03 0.0007 0.7 

Data are means ± SD and n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

*

P comparing means and percentages by t and χ2 tests.

P for variable in logistic model with only variable and sex, as interaction not significant.

P for variable not given, as the interaction is significant.

§

Log transformation because of a nonsymmetric distribution.

Hypertension: systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or medication for hypertension.

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