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Table 1—

Results for demographics and repeated-measures statistical analysis

Demographics
Anodyne groupSham groupP
n 33 27  
Age (years) 65.7 ± 1.9 64.2 ± 2.0 0.59 
Sex (% male) 35 0.2  
Duration of diabetes (years) 13.4 ± 2.0 13.4 ± 2.1 0.99 
Diabetes medication (counts of patients)  0.34  
    Oral 22 21  
    Insulin  
    Combination  
    Diet  
Demographics
Anodyne groupSham groupP
n 33 27  
Age (years) 65.7 ± 1.9 64.2 ± 2.0 0.59 
Sex (% male) 35 0.2  
Duration of diabetes (years) 13.4 ± 2.0 13.4 ± 2.1 0.99 
Diabetes medication (counts of patients)  0.34  
    Oral 22 21  
    Insulin  
    Combination  
    Diet  
Repeated-measures general linear model statistical results
Anodyne groupSham group
P value
StartEndStartEnd
Glycated hemoglobin 7.6 ± 0.22 7.6 ± 0.21 7.7 ± 0.26 7.7 ± 0.24 0.70 
VPT great toe (V)     
    Right 33.5 ± 1.1 34.8 ± 3.0 30.4 ± 1.2 36.1 ± 3.3 0.33 
    Left 34.2 ± 1.2 36.8 ± 2.9 30.5 ± 1.3 32.7 ± 3.1 0.92 
VPT fifth metatarsal (V)      
    Right 33.1 ± 1.3 38.2 ± 3.1 29.3 ± 1.4 34.2 ± 3.4 0.97 
    Left 32.7 ± 1.3 37.7 ± 1.3 32.5 ± 1.5 36.2 ± 1.4 0.77 
Visual analog scale pain score 62.6 ± 5.9 59.6 ± 6.1 64.1 ± 6.6 55.5 ± 6.8 0.85 
MNSI 7.5 ± 0.42 7.4 ± 0.46 6.8 ± 0.46 7.1 ± 0.51 0.42 
NeuroQoL unsteadiness walking 9.4 ± 1.01 10.0 ± 0.96 8.2 ± 1.09 9.6 ± 1.04 0.46 
NeuroQoL unsteadiness standing 8.1 ± 0.76 8.5 ± 0.82 6.5 ± 0.85 8.5 ± 0.91  
Difference (start–end) 0.4  2.0*  0.5* 
Nerve conduction velocity      
    Distal motor latency peroneal nerve 4.1 ± 0.16 4.2 ± 0.24 4.3 ± 0.19 4.5 ± 0.28 0.55 
    Amplitude peroneal nerve 2.3 ± 0.33 2.1 ± 0.32 2.2 ± 0.38 1.8 ± 0.37 0.15 
    Mean peroneal nerve 61.6 ± 1.44 60.6 ± 1.38 58.9 ± 1.70 58.0 ± 1.63 0.90 
    Distal motor latency tibial nerve 4.6 ± 0.20 4.4 ± 0.12 4.5 ± 0.22 4.4 ± 0.13 0.79 
    Amplitude tibial nerve 1.9 ± 0.36 1.7 ± 0.35 2.3 ± 0.41 2.4 ± 0.40 0.12 
    Mean tibial nerve 62.8 ± 1.41 60.9 ± 1.48 59.2 ± 1.61 59.1 ± 1.69 0.20 
Repeated-measures general linear model statistical results
Anodyne groupSham group
P value
StartEndStartEnd
Glycated hemoglobin 7.6 ± 0.22 7.6 ± 0.21 7.7 ± 0.26 7.7 ± 0.24 0.70 
VPT great toe (V)     
    Right 33.5 ± 1.1 34.8 ± 3.0 30.4 ± 1.2 36.1 ± 3.3 0.33 
    Left 34.2 ± 1.2 36.8 ± 2.9 30.5 ± 1.3 32.7 ± 3.1 0.92 
VPT fifth metatarsal (V)      
    Right 33.1 ± 1.3 38.2 ± 3.1 29.3 ± 1.4 34.2 ± 3.4 0.97 
    Left 32.7 ± 1.3 37.7 ± 1.3 32.5 ± 1.5 36.2 ± 1.4 0.77 
Visual analog scale pain score 62.6 ± 5.9 59.6 ± 6.1 64.1 ± 6.6 55.5 ± 6.8 0.85 
MNSI 7.5 ± 0.42 7.4 ± 0.46 6.8 ± 0.46 7.1 ± 0.51 0.42 
NeuroQoL unsteadiness walking 9.4 ± 1.01 10.0 ± 0.96 8.2 ± 1.09 9.6 ± 1.04 0.46 
NeuroQoL unsteadiness standing 8.1 ± 0.76 8.5 ± 0.82 6.5 ± 0.85 8.5 ± 0.91  
Difference (start–end) 0.4  2.0*  0.5* 
Nerve conduction velocity      
    Distal motor latency peroneal nerve 4.1 ± 0.16 4.2 ± 0.24 4.3 ± 0.19 4.5 ± 0.28 0.55 
    Amplitude peroneal nerve 2.3 ± 0.33 2.1 ± 0.32 2.2 ± 0.38 1.8 ± 0.37 0.15 
    Mean peroneal nerve 61.6 ± 1.44 60.6 ± 1.38 58.9 ± 1.70 58.0 ± 1.63 0.90 
    Distal motor latency tibial nerve 4.6 ± 0.20 4.4 ± 0.12 4.5 ± 0.22 4.4 ± 0.13 0.79 
    Amplitude tibial nerve 1.9 ± 0.36 1.7 ± 0.35 2.3 ± 0.41 2.4 ± 0.40 0.12 
    Mean tibial nerve 62.8 ± 1.41 60.9 ± 1.48 59.2 ± 1.61 59.1 ± 1.69 0.20 

Data are means ± SD, except for the information on medications. Medication is presented as the counts of subjects under a specific medication regimen. The significance or P value for the demographics data represents the difference by treatment. For the repeated-measures analysis the significance (P value) is for the treatment-time interaction in a repeated-measures ANOVA.

*

Significant sham result. NCV, nerve conduction velocity.

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