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Table 1—

Characteristics of participants who were adolescents at entry into the DCCT

DCCT baseline (1983–1989)
EDIC year 12 (2005)
IntensiveConventionalIntensiveConventional
n 82 93 82 93 
Sex (% female) 50 62 50 62 
Race (% white) 99 92 99 92 
Age (years) 16 ± 2 16 ± 2 36 ± 3 35 ± 3 
College graduate (%) 37 42 
Marital status (%)     
    Never married 100 99 21 19 
    Married/remarried 69 68 
    Separated/divorced/widowed 10 13 
Occupation (%)     
    Professional/technical 53 41 
    Unemployed/retired 
Severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (%) 11 23 
Duration (years) 5 ± 3 5 ± 4 25 ± 4 24 ± 4 
A1C 9.5 ± 1.7 9.4 ± 1.9 7.8 ± 1.5 7.9 ± 1.6 
Visual acuity (%)   
Peripheral neuropathy (%)§ 17 33 
Blood pressure     
    Systolic (mmHg) 112 ± 10 109 ± 11 117 ± 13 115 ± 13 
    Diastolic (mmHg) 71 ± 9 70 ± 9 74 ± 9 75 ± 9 
    Treated hypertension   19 30 
Lipids     
    Total cholesterol 166 ± 32 165 ± 31 179 ± 34 185 ± 37 
    LDL cholesterol 102 ± 30 101 ± 28 109 ± 28 113 ± 30 
    Lipid-lowering medication   19 17 
Current cigarette smoker (%) 11 15 18 
Symptom Check List-90R     
    Mean depression T score 45 ± 10 47 ± 11 49 ± 10 49 ± 12 
Verbal IQ 110 ± 12 108 ± 12   
Full-scale IQ 111 ± 11 110 ± 12   
DCCT baseline (1983–1989)
EDIC year 12 (2005)
IntensiveConventionalIntensiveConventional
n 82 93 82 93 
Sex (% female) 50 62 50 62 
Race (% white) 99 92 99 92 
Age (years) 16 ± 2 16 ± 2 36 ± 3 35 ± 3 
College graduate (%) 37 42 
Marital status (%)     
    Never married 100 99 21 19 
    Married/remarried 69 68 
    Separated/divorced/widowed 10 13 
Occupation (%)     
    Professional/technical 53 41 
    Unemployed/retired 
Severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (%) 11 23 
Duration (years) 5 ± 3 5 ± 4 25 ± 4 24 ± 4 
A1C 9.5 ± 1.7 9.4 ± 1.9 7.8 ± 1.5 7.9 ± 1.6 
Visual acuity (%)   
Peripheral neuropathy (%)§ 17 33 
Blood pressure     
    Systolic (mmHg) 112 ± 10 109 ± 11 117 ± 13 115 ± 13 
    Diastolic (mmHg) 71 ± 9 70 ± 9 74 ± 9 75 ± 9 
    Treated hypertension   19 30 
Lipids     
    Total cholesterol 166 ± 32 165 ± 31 179 ± 34 185 ± 37 
    LDL cholesterol 102 ± 30 101 ± 28 109 ± 28 113 ± 30 
    Lipid-lowering medication   19 17 
Current cigarette smoker (%) 11 15 18 
Symptom Check List-90R     
    Mean depression T score 45 ± 10 47 ± 11 49 ± 10 49 ± 12 
Verbal IQ 110 ± 12 108 ± 12   
Full-scale IQ 111 ± 11 110 ± 12   

Data are means ± SD.

DCCT baseline value is the eligibility value.

At DCCT baseline, all patients had visual acuity of 20/32 or better. In EDIC, a Snellen value of 20/40 or worse in at least one eye was recorded.

§

The DCCT baseline definition is pain or numbness in hands only, taken from the Neurological History and Examination form. The EDIC definition is pain or numbness in hands or feet, taken from the Annual Medical History and Examination form.

Data were not collected in DCCT.

Data were not collected in EDIC. Mean value is 100, with SD of 15. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was administered for patients aged ≥16 years (58% intensive and 55% conventional), whereas the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children was given for participants aged <16 years (43% intensive and 45% conventional).

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