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Table 3—

Raw cognitive test scores

DCCT baseline (1983–1989)
EDIC year 12 (2005)
IntensiveConventionalIntensiveConventional
n 82 93 82 93 
Problem solving     
    Similarities* 12.2 ± 2.8 12.1 ± 2.5 13.8 ± 2.2 13.1 ± 2.4 
    Category test (no. errors) 30.7 ± 18.2 32.3 ± 22.9 15.0 ± 10.8 14.9 ± 12.9 
Learning     
    Symbol-digit learning (no. correct) 24.5 ± 4.3 24.5 ± 4.5 25.7 ± 2.9 24.8 ± 4.4 
    Tactual performance memory (no. correct) 7.4 ± 1.5 7.3 ± 1.7 8.1 ± 1.2 7.8 ± 1.5 
Immediate memory     
    Visual reproductions (no. correct) 14.6 ± 1.9 14.5 ± 2.4 15.3 ± 1.5 15.1 ± 1.7 
    Short-term memory (no. correct) 38.0 ± 9.5 37.5 ± 10.2 42.7 ± 11.0 40.1 ± 11.8 
    Logical memory (no. correct) 19.7 ± 5.7 19.5 ± 5.4 20.9 ± 8.5 20.0 ± 5.3 
    Digit symbol (no. correct) 8.4 ± 1.0 8.1 ± 1.4 8.0 ± 1.6 7.9 ± 1.5 
Delayed recall     
    Visual reproductions (no. correct) 15.5 ± 1.5 15.4 ± 1.7 15.5 ± 1.4 15.3 ± 1.7 
     Logical memory (no. correct) 15.9 ± 5.2 16.3 ± 5.2 18.4 ± 8.9 17.9 ± 8.0 
Spatial information     
    Embedded figures (time in s) 7.4 ± 3.2 7.0 ± 2.6 5.5 ± 2.6 5.3 ± 2.2 
    Object assembly* 11.5 ± 2.6 12.0 ± 2.8 14.5 ± 2.5 14.2 ± 2.7 
    Block design* 12.6 ± 2.4 12.1 ± 2.8 14.1 ± 2.4 13.8 ± 2.8 
    Tactual performance test (time in min)  10.7 ± 3.8 10.9 ± 3.4 8.6 ± 3.1 9.4 ± 3.0 
Attention     
    Digit vigilance (time in s) 398.8 ± 77.9 401.5 ± 91.2 365.2 ± 80.0 386.1 ± 84.6 
    Digit vigilance (no. errors) 6.0 ± 5.7 6.4 ± 5.6 5.4 ± 6.1 6.2 ± 6.2 
    Digit span* 11.1 ± 3.0 11.1 ± 2.7 12.2 ± 2.8 11.8 ± 3.1 
Psychomotor and mental efficiency     
    Verbal fluency (no. correct) 37.8 ± 9.3 37.4 ± 10.4 48.8 ± 12.7 45.6 ± 13.6 
    Digit symbol, 90-s total (no. correct) 62.4 ± 13.1 60.2 ± 11.4 67.8 ± 10.5 66.3 ± 9.1 
    Trail making, part B (time in s) 51.3 ± 16.6 51.9 ± 16.2 45.6 ± 12.8 48.9 ± 15.1 
    Grooved peg test, dominant hand (time in s) 66.4 ± 10.4 66.9 ± 9.4 66.0 ± 11.3 66.9 ± 13.0 
    Grooved peg test, nondominant hand (time in s) 71.0 ± 10.7 72.8 ± 12.3 72.0 ± 12.2 74.4 ± 17.8 
Motor speed     
    Finger tapping, dominant hand (no. taps in 10 s) 46.0 ± 6.9 45.0 ± 6.4 52.1 ± 7.1 50.6 ± 7.1 
    Finger tapping, nondominant hand (no. taps in 10 s) 43.0 ± 6.4 41.7 ± 5.8 46.9 ± 5.9 44.5 ± 7.1 
DCCT baseline (1983–1989)
EDIC year 12 (2005)
IntensiveConventionalIntensiveConventional
n 82 93 82 93 
Problem solving     
    Similarities* 12.2 ± 2.8 12.1 ± 2.5 13.8 ± 2.2 13.1 ± 2.4 
    Category test (no. errors) 30.7 ± 18.2 32.3 ± 22.9 15.0 ± 10.8 14.9 ± 12.9 
Learning     
    Symbol-digit learning (no. correct) 24.5 ± 4.3 24.5 ± 4.5 25.7 ± 2.9 24.8 ± 4.4 
    Tactual performance memory (no. correct) 7.4 ± 1.5 7.3 ± 1.7 8.1 ± 1.2 7.8 ± 1.5 
Immediate memory     
    Visual reproductions (no. correct) 14.6 ± 1.9 14.5 ± 2.4 15.3 ± 1.5 15.1 ± 1.7 
    Short-term memory (no. correct) 38.0 ± 9.5 37.5 ± 10.2 42.7 ± 11.0 40.1 ± 11.8 
    Logical memory (no. correct) 19.7 ± 5.7 19.5 ± 5.4 20.9 ± 8.5 20.0 ± 5.3 
    Digit symbol (no. correct) 8.4 ± 1.0 8.1 ± 1.4 8.0 ± 1.6 7.9 ± 1.5 
Delayed recall     
    Visual reproductions (no. correct) 15.5 ± 1.5 15.4 ± 1.7 15.5 ± 1.4 15.3 ± 1.7 
     Logical memory (no. correct) 15.9 ± 5.2 16.3 ± 5.2 18.4 ± 8.9 17.9 ± 8.0 
Spatial information     
    Embedded figures (time in s) 7.4 ± 3.2 7.0 ± 2.6 5.5 ± 2.6 5.3 ± 2.2 
    Object assembly* 11.5 ± 2.6 12.0 ± 2.8 14.5 ± 2.5 14.2 ± 2.7 
    Block design* 12.6 ± 2.4 12.1 ± 2.8 14.1 ± 2.4 13.8 ± 2.8 
    Tactual performance test (time in min)  10.7 ± 3.8 10.9 ± 3.4 8.6 ± 3.1 9.4 ± 3.0 
Attention     
    Digit vigilance (time in s) 398.8 ± 77.9 401.5 ± 91.2 365.2 ± 80.0 386.1 ± 84.6 
    Digit vigilance (no. errors) 6.0 ± 5.7 6.4 ± 5.6 5.4 ± 6.1 6.2 ± 6.2 
    Digit span* 11.1 ± 3.0 11.1 ± 2.7 12.2 ± 2.8 11.8 ± 3.1 
Psychomotor and mental efficiency     
    Verbal fluency (no. correct) 37.8 ± 9.3 37.4 ± 10.4 48.8 ± 12.7 45.6 ± 13.6 
    Digit symbol, 90-s total (no. correct) 62.4 ± 13.1 60.2 ± 11.4 67.8 ± 10.5 66.3 ± 9.1 
    Trail making, part B (time in s) 51.3 ± 16.6 51.9 ± 16.2 45.6 ± 12.8 48.9 ± 15.1 
    Grooved peg test, dominant hand (time in s) 66.4 ± 10.4 66.9 ± 9.4 66.0 ± 11.3 66.9 ± 13.0 
    Grooved peg test, nondominant hand (time in s) 71.0 ± 10.7 72.8 ± 12.3 72.0 ± 12.2 74.4 ± 17.8 
Motor speed     
    Finger tapping, dominant hand (no. taps in 10 s) 46.0 ± 6.9 45.0 ± 6.4 52.1 ± 7.1 50.6 ± 7.1 
    Finger tapping, nondominant hand (no. taps in 10 s) 43.0 ± 6.4 41.7 ± 5.8 46.9 ± 5.9 44.5 ± 7.1 

Data are means ±SD.

*

Scaled scores.

Higher scores indicate poorer performance.

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