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Table 2—

Mean A1C and the proportion of individuals with A1C <7.0% by NHANES wave

A1C
A1C <7%
NHANES 1999–2000NHANES 2001–2002NHANES 2003–2004NHANES 1999–2000NHANES 2001–2002NHANES 2003–2004
n 403 448 482 403 448 482 
Overall 7.82 ± 0.17 7.47 ± 0.16 7.18 ± 0.11* 36.9% ± 4.4 49.4 ± 3.6* 56.8 ± 3.5* 
Age       
    18–44 years 8.71 ± 0.82 7.68 ± 0.31 7.22 ± 0.24 29.7 ± 13.0 42.9 ± 9.1 48.5 ± 5.3 
    45–64 years 7.81 ± 0.19 7.68 ± 0.25 7.59 ± 0.18 40.0 ± 6.6 47.5 ± 4.2 48.5 ± 5.8 
    65+ years 7.49 ± 0.16 7.04 ± 0.12* 6.72 ± 0.07* 36.2 ± 6.0 56.3 ± 4.4* 68.3 ± 2.7* 
Sex       
    Female 7.91 ± 0.28 7.36 ± 0.16 7.04 ± 0.10* 37.1 ± 5.9 52.3 ± 4.0* 58.2 ± 4.6* 
    Male 7.75 ± 0.14 7.57 ± 0.21 7.33 ± 0.23 36.7 ± 4.7 46.6 ± 4.4 55.2 ± 4.5* 
Race/ethnicity       
    White non-Hispanic 7.52 ± 0.25 7.23 ± 0.14 6.90 ± 0.11* 41.5 ± 6.7 53.3 ± 4.2 63.3 ± 4.3* 
    Black non-Hispanic 8.26 ± 0.21 7.82 ± 0.22 7.61 ± 0.21* 28.5 ± 4.0 44.2 ± 4.2* 44.4 ± 5.0* 
    Hispanic 8.10 ± 0.17 7.71 ± 0.36 8.36 ± 0.34 35.2 ± 5.9 47.1 ± 5.1 37.2 ± 6.2 
    Other 9.01 ± 0.25 8.40 ± 0.65 7.15 ± 0.18* 16.9 ± 7.8 30.3 ± 15.0 40.6 ± 12.8 
Education       
    <High school 7.96 ± 0.13 7.57 ± 0.27 7.57 ± 0.29 30.5 ± 3.9 51.5 ± 5.2* 43.7 ± 5.5 
    High school 7.32 ± 0.27 7.47 ± 0.16 7.01 ± 0.14 51.6 ± 7.0 47.2 ± 5.2 58.8 ± 5.4 
    >High school 8.05 ± 0.41 7.40 ± 0.22 7.01 ± 0.12* 33.9 ± 7.4 49.2 ± 4.3 64.2 ± 4.7* 
BMI       
    BMI <30 kg/m2 8.13 ± 0.31 7.48 ± 0.28 7.34 ± 0.15* 32.8 ± 7.7 53.9 ± 5.0* 50.6 ± 5.1 
    BMI ≥30 kg/m2 7.62 ± 0.11 7.46 ± 0.13 7.06 ± 0.15* 38.8 ± 4.9 45.8 ± 4.7 61.3 ± 4.5* 
Income       
    <$20,000 8.18 ± 0.31 7.22 ± 0.20* 7.23 ± 0.19* 33.7 ± 4.9 54.8 ± 4.3* 55.4 ± 5.9* 
    ≥$20,000 7.66 ± 0.17 7.55 ± 0.19 7.16 ± 0.12* 38.4 ± 6.4 47.6 ± 4.1 57.3 ± 3.8* 
Insurance       
    Uninsured 8.55 ± 0.70 8.44 ± 0.51 7.54 ± 0.38 44.3 ± 9.6 37.8 ± 6.8 46.1 ± 12.2 
    Insured 7.70 ± 0.15 7.35 ± 0.15 7.13 ± 0.12* 35.6 ± 5.0 50.8 ± 3.7* 58.1 ± 3.8* 
Duration       
    <5 years 7.94 ± 0.49 7.09 ± 0.17 6.74 ± 0.20* 40.7 ± 7.1 57.8 ± 5.0* 74.2 ± 5.3* 
    5–14 years 7.94 ± 0.13 7.88 ± 0.32 7.49 ± 0.15* 34.2 ± 4.2 41.3 ± 5.9 50.0 ± 4.5* 
    15+ years 7.58 ± 0.19 7.46 ± 0.22 7.26 ± 0.15 35.7 ± 7.0 48.2 ± 5.5 44.6 ± 6.5 
Smoker       
    Current 7.99 ± 0.33 7.49 ± 0.31 7.48 ± 0.32 28.9 ± 10.5 50.0 ± 8.0 50.2 ± 6.1 
    Former 7.47 ± 0.14 7.18 ± 0.26 7.00 ± 0.13* 46.6 ± 4.0 55.7 ± 8.0 60.3 ± 5.4* 
    Never 8.00 ± 0.28 7.65 ± 0.20 7.17 ± 0.14* 33.2 ± 5.0 44.6 ± 4.9 57.3 ± 4.8* 
Diabetes treatment       
    Diabetes pills only 7.80 ± 0.18 7.37 ± 0.17 7.26 ± 0.07* 34.1 ± 4.9 50.3 ± 4.1* 55.3 ± 3.8&* 
    Insulin only 8.70 ± 0.40 8.15 ± 0.31 7.79 ± 0.25 24.2 ± 10.4 30.4 ± 6.7 33.2 ± 9.6 
    Pills and insulin 8.32 ± 0.20 8.22 ± 0.45 7.92 ± 0.16 13.7 ± 6.9 26.1 ± 12.2 36.3 ± 7.0* 
    Diet only 7.04 ± 0.31 6.73 ± 0.43 6.07 ± 0.18* 62.6 ± 9.8 77.2 ± 7.1 89.7 ± 4.8* 
A1C
A1C <7%
NHANES 1999–2000NHANES 2001–2002NHANES 2003–2004NHANES 1999–2000NHANES 2001–2002NHANES 2003–2004
n 403 448 482 403 448 482 
Overall 7.82 ± 0.17 7.47 ± 0.16 7.18 ± 0.11* 36.9% ± 4.4 49.4 ± 3.6* 56.8 ± 3.5* 
Age       
    18–44 years 8.71 ± 0.82 7.68 ± 0.31 7.22 ± 0.24 29.7 ± 13.0 42.9 ± 9.1 48.5 ± 5.3 
    45–64 years 7.81 ± 0.19 7.68 ± 0.25 7.59 ± 0.18 40.0 ± 6.6 47.5 ± 4.2 48.5 ± 5.8 
    65+ years 7.49 ± 0.16 7.04 ± 0.12* 6.72 ± 0.07* 36.2 ± 6.0 56.3 ± 4.4* 68.3 ± 2.7* 
Sex       
    Female 7.91 ± 0.28 7.36 ± 0.16 7.04 ± 0.10* 37.1 ± 5.9 52.3 ± 4.0* 58.2 ± 4.6* 
    Male 7.75 ± 0.14 7.57 ± 0.21 7.33 ± 0.23 36.7 ± 4.7 46.6 ± 4.4 55.2 ± 4.5* 
Race/ethnicity       
    White non-Hispanic 7.52 ± 0.25 7.23 ± 0.14 6.90 ± 0.11* 41.5 ± 6.7 53.3 ± 4.2 63.3 ± 4.3* 
    Black non-Hispanic 8.26 ± 0.21 7.82 ± 0.22 7.61 ± 0.21* 28.5 ± 4.0 44.2 ± 4.2* 44.4 ± 5.0* 
    Hispanic 8.10 ± 0.17 7.71 ± 0.36 8.36 ± 0.34 35.2 ± 5.9 47.1 ± 5.1 37.2 ± 6.2 
    Other 9.01 ± 0.25 8.40 ± 0.65 7.15 ± 0.18* 16.9 ± 7.8 30.3 ± 15.0 40.6 ± 12.8 
Education       
    <High school 7.96 ± 0.13 7.57 ± 0.27 7.57 ± 0.29 30.5 ± 3.9 51.5 ± 5.2* 43.7 ± 5.5 
    High school 7.32 ± 0.27 7.47 ± 0.16 7.01 ± 0.14 51.6 ± 7.0 47.2 ± 5.2 58.8 ± 5.4 
    >High school 8.05 ± 0.41 7.40 ± 0.22 7.01 ± 0.12* 33.9 ± 7.4 49.2 ± 4.3 64.2 ± 4.7* 
BMI       
    BMI <30 kg/m2 8.13 ± 0.31 7.48 ± 0.28 7.34 ± 0.15* 32.8 ± 7.7 53.9 ± 5.0* 50.6 ± 5.1 
    BMI ≥30 kg/m2 7.62 ± 0.11 7.46 ± 0.13 7.06 ± 0.15* 38.8 ± 4.9 45.8 ± 4.7 61.3 ± 4.5* 
Income       
    <$20,000 8.18 ± 0.31 7.22 ± 0.20* 7.23 ± 0.19* 33.7 ± 4.9 54.8 ± 4.3* 55.4 ± 5.9* 
    ≥$20,000 7.66 ± 0.17 7.55 ± 0.19 7.16 ± 0.12* 38.4 ± 6.4 47.6 ± 4.1 57.3 ± 3.8* 
Insurance       
    Uninsured 8.55 ± 0.70 8.44 ± 0.51 7.54 ± 0.38 44.3 ± 9.6 37.8 ± 6.8 46.1 ± 12.2 
    Insured 7.70 ± 0.15 7.35 ± 0.15 7.13 ± 0.12* 35.6 ± 5.0 50.8 ± 3.7* 58.1 ± 3.8* 
Duration       
    <5 years 7.94 ± 0.49 7.09 ± 0.17 6.74 ± 0.20* 40.7 ± 7.1 57.8 ± 5.0* 74.2 ± 5.3* 
    5–14 years 7.94 ± 0.13 7.88 ± 0.32 7.49 ± 0.15* 34.2 ± 4.2 41.3 ± 5.9 50.0 ± 4.5* 
    15+ years 7.58 ± 0.19 7.46 ± 0.22 7.26 ± 0.15 35.7 ± 7.0 48.2 ± 5.5 44.6 ± 6.5 
Smoker       
    Current 7.99 ± 0.33 7.49 ± 0.31 7.48 ± 0.32 28.9 ± 10.5 50.0 ± 8.0 50.2 ± 6.1 
    Former 7.47 ± 0.14 7.18 ± 0.26 7.00 ± 0.13* 46.6 ± 4.0 55.7 ± 8.0 60.3 ± 5.4* 
    Never 8.00 ± 0.28 7.65 ± 0.20 7.17 ± 0.14* 33.2 ± 5.0 44.6 ± 4.9 57.3 ± 4.8* 
Diabetes treatment       
    Diabetes pills only 7.80 ± 0.18 7.37 ± 0.17 7.26 ± 0.07* 34.1 ± 4.9 50.3 ± 4.1* 55.3 ± 3.8&* 
    Insulin only 8.70 ± 0.40 8.15 ± 0.31 7.79 ± 0.25 24.2 ± 10.4 30.4 ± 6.7 33.2 ± 9.6 
    Pills and insulin 8.32 ± 0.20 8.22 ± 0.45 7.92 ± 0.16 13.7 ± 6.9 26.1 ± 12.2 36.3 ± 7.0* 
    Diet only 7.04 ± 0.31 6.73 ± 0.43 6.07 ± 0.18* 62.6 ± 9.8 77.2 ± 7.1 89.7 ± 4.8* 

Data are means ± SEM.

*

Significantly different from NHANES 1999–2000 at P < 0.05.

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