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Table 1—

RRs of Parkinson's disease according to history of type 2 diabetes

Participants (PD case subjects)
Person-years
RR (95% CI)*
Pinteraction
Without diabetesWith diabetesWithout diabetesWith diabetesWithout diabetesWith diabetes
All participants 19,431 2,410 404,923 49,031 1.00 (ref.) 1.34 (1.01–1.77)  
    Baseline age (years)        
        <55 11,684 (149) 1,247 (12) 259,924 27,489 1.00 (ref.) 1.12 (0.61–2.07) 0.81 
        55–64 5,140 (194) 790 (26) 103,743 15,937 1.00 (ref.) 1.57 (1.04–2.38)  
        ≥65 2,607 (155) 373 (20) 41,255 5,605 1.00 (ref.) 1.25 (0.76–2.05)  
    BMI        
        <25 kg/m2 11,720 (289) 858 (31) 246,028 17,147 1.00 (ref.) 1.88 (1.28–2.77) 0.04 
        25 to <30 kg/m2 7,097 (191) 1,247 (25) 147,109 25,713 1.00 (ref.) 1.14 (0.75–1.72)  
        ≥30 kg/m2 614 (18) 305 (2) 11,786 6,171 1.00 (ref.) 0.36 (0.08–1.59)  
    Diabetes with complications 19,431 (498)  404,923     
        No  1,475 (33)  30,981 1.00 (ref.) 1.63 (1.14–2.33) 0.0002 
        Yes  935 (25)  18,050 1.00 (ref.) 1.10 (0.74–1.64)  
    Diabetes duration (years) 19,432 (498)  404,931     
        <5  562 (22)  11,048 1.00 (ref.) 7.17 (4.59–11.20) <0.0001 
        5–9  631 (14)  12,945 1.00 (ref.) 2.03 (1.22–3.36)  
        10–14  482 (7)  9,921 1.00 (ref.) 0.82 (0.42–1.60)  
        ≥15  734 (15)  15,109 1.00 (ref.) 0.73 (0.45–1.18)  
    Age at onset of diabetes (median) 19,431 (498)  404,923     
        ≤63.7  1,213 (22)  24,654 1.00 (ref.) 1.18 (0.78–1.79) <0.0002 
        >63.7  1,197 (36)  24,377 1.00 (ref.) 1.49 (1.04–2.11)  
Participants (PD case subjects)
Person-years
RR (95% CI)*
Pinteraction
Without diabetesWith diabetesWithout diabetesWith diabetesWithout diabetesWith diabetes
All participants 19,431 2,410 404,923 49,031 1.00 (ref.) 1.34 (1.01–1.77)  
    Baseline age (years)        
        <55 11,684 (149) 1,247 (12) 259,924 27,489 1.00 (ref.) 1.12 (0.61–2.07) 0.81 
        55–64 5,140 (194) 790 (26) 103,743 15,937 1.00 (ref.) 1.57 (1.04–2.38)  
        ≥65 2,607 (155) 373 (20) 41,255 5,605 1.00 (ref.) 1.25 (0.76–2.05)  
    BMI        
        <25 kg/m2 11,720 (289) 858 (31) 246,028 17,147 1.00 (ref.) 1.88 (1.28–2.77) 0.04 
        25 to <30 kg/m2 7,097 (191) 1,247 (25) 147,109 25,713 1.00 (ref.) 1.14 (0.75–1.72)  
        ≥30 kg/m2 614 (18) 305 (2) 11,786 6,171 1.00 (ref.) 0.36 (0.08–1.59)  
    Diabetes with complications 19,431 (498)  404,923     
        No  1,475 (33)  30,981 1.00 (ref.) 1.63 (1.14–2.33) 0.0002 
        Yes  935 (25)  18,050 1.00 (ref.) 1.10 (0.74–1.64)  
    Diabetes duration (years) 19,432 (498)  404,931     
        <5  562 (22)  11,048 1.00 (ref.) 7.17 (4.59–11.20) <0.0001 
        5–9  631 (14)  12,945 1.00 (ref.) 2.03 (1.22–3.36)  
        10–14  482 (7)  9,921 1.00 (ref.) 0.82 (0.42–1.60)  
        ≥15  734 (15)  15,109 1.00 (ref.) 0.73 (0.45–1.18)  
    Age at onset of diabetes (median) 19,431 (498)  404,923     
        ≤63.7  1,213 (22)  24,654 1.00 (ref.) 1.18 (0.78–1.79) <0.0002 
        >63.7  1,197 (36)  24,377 1.00 (ref.) 1.49 (1.04–2.11)  

Data are n(n) unless otherwise indicated.

*

Adjusted for the following baseline variables: age (continuous), smoking status (never, past, or current), alcohol use (rarely, weekly, or daily), BMI (<25 kg/m2, ≥25 to <30 kg/m2, or ≥30 kg/m2), physical activity vigorous enough to work up a sweat (>1–3 times/month or ≤1–3 times/month), hypertension (history of treatment or blood pressure >140 systolic or >90 diastolic), and cholesterol levels (history of treatment or total cholesterol >240). PD, Parkinson's disease.

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