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Table 1—

Baseline demographic, clinical, and metabolic parameters of study subjects stratified by glucose tolerance status in pregnancy

Demographic and clinical featuresNormal GCT NGTAbnormal GCT NGTGIGTGDMP value
n 93 166 91 137  
Age (years) 34.0 ± 4.4 33.8 ± 4.2 34.2 ± 4.2 34.5 ± 4.3 0.5917 
Weeks of gestation 32 (30.5–34) 29 (28–30) 29 (28–31) 29 (28–31) <0.0001 
Ethnicity:     0.0708 
    White 74 (79.6) 132 (79.5) 65 (71.4) 98 (71.5)  
    Asian 7 (7.5) 15 (9.0) 18 (19.8) 15 (11.0)  
    Other 12 (12.9) 19 (11.5) 8 (8.8) 24 (17.5)  
Family history of diabetes 39 (41.9) 84 (50.6) 48 (52.8) 81 (59.1) 0.0120 
Parity:     0.7087 
    Nulliparous 57 (61.3) 83 (50.0) 51 (56.0) 75 (54.7)  
    1 31 (33.3) 61 (36.8) 27 (29.7) 51 (37.2)  
    >1 5 (5.4) 22 (13.3) 13 (14.3) 11 (8.0)  
Previous GDM/macrosomic infant 0 (0) 6 (3.6) 11 (12.1) 10 (7.3) 0.0040 
Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m223.0 (21.5–26.1) 23.5 (21.1–27.5) 23.5 (21.8–27.7) 25.0 (22.0–30.1) 0.0246 
Weight gain in pregnancy up to OGTT (kg) 12.8 (10.4–16.3) 10.0 (7.5–13.6) 10.0 (7.3–14.5) 9.1 (5.9–12.7) <0.0001 
Smoking exposure:     0.2750 
    Never 58 (62.4) 114 (68.7) 66 (72.5) 103 (75.2)  
    Remote 34 (36.6) 51 (30.7) 23 (25.3) 32 (23.4)  
    Current 1 (1.1) 1 (0.6) 2 (2.2) 2 (1.5)  
Glucose metabolism      
    GCT (mmol/l) 5.7 (5.2–6.6) 8.4 (8.0–9.1) 8.5 (7.9–9.0) 8.8 (8.2–9.5) <0.0001 
    Fasting glucose (mmol/l) 4.2 (4.0–4.5) 4.4 (4.2–4.6) 4.7 (4.3–5.0) 4.6 (4.3–5.2) <0.0001 
    AUCgluc 19.6 ± 2.0 21.0 ± 2.3 24.3 ± 1.7 27.7 ± 2.2 <0.0001 
    ISOGTT 5.4 (3.7–7.3) 5.4 (3.6–7.3) 3.5 (2.7–5.0) 3.1 (2.2–5.0) <0.0001 
    Insulinogenic index/HOMA-IR 13.9 (9.7–19.6) 12.8 (8.6–18.1) 8.1 (4.6–10.8) 6.2 (3.5–10.3) <0.0001 
Demographic and clinical featuresNormal GCT NGTAbnormal GCT NGTGIGTGDMP value
n 93 166 91 137  
Age (years) 34.0 ± 4.4 33.8 ± 4.2 34.2 ± 4.2 34.5 ± 4.3 0.5917 
Weeks of gestation 32 (30.5–34) 29 (28–30) 29 (28–31) 29 (28–31) <0.0001 
Ethnicity:     0.0708 
    White 74 (79.6) 132 (79.5) 65 (71.4) 98 (71.5)  
    Asian 7 (7.5) 15 (9.0) 18 (19.8) 15 (11.0)  
    Other 12 (12.9) 19 (11.5) 8 (8.8) 24 (17.5)  
Family history of diabetes 39 (41.9) 84 (50.6) 48 (52.8) 81 (59.1) 0.0120 
Parity:     0.7087 
    Nulliparous 57 (61.3) 83 (50.0) 51 (56.0) 75 (54.7)  
    1 31 (33.3) 61 (36.8) 27 (29.7) 51 (37.2)  
    >1 5 (5.4) 22 (13.3) 13 (14.3) 11 (8.0)  
Previous GDM/macrosomic infant 0 (0) 6 (3.6) 11 (12.1) 10 (7.3) 0.0040 
Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m223.0 (21.5–26.1) 23.5 (21.1–27.5) 23.5 (21.8–27.7) 25.0 (22.0–30.1) 0.0246 
Weight gain in pregnancy up to OGTT (kg) 12.8 (10.4–16.3) 10.0 (7.5–13.6) 10.0 (7.3–14.5) 9.1 (5.9–12.7) <0.0001 
Smoking exposure:     0.2750 
    Never 58 (62.4) 114 (68.7) 66 (72.5) 103 (75.2)  
    Remote 34 (36.6) 51 (30.7) 23 (25.3) 32 (23.4)  
    Current 1 (1.1) 1 (0.6) 2 (2.2) 2 (1.5)  
Glucose metabolism      
    GCT (mmol/l) 5.7 (5.2–6.6) 8.4 (8.0–9.1) 8.5 (7.9–9.0) 8.8 (8.2–9.5) <0.0001 
    Fasting glucose (mmol/l) 4.2 (4.0–4.5) 4.4 (4.2–4.6) 4.7 (4.3–5.0) 4.6 (4.3–5.2) <0.0001 
    AUCgluc 19.6 ± 2.0 21.0 ± 2.3 24.3 ± 1.7 27.7 ± 2.2 <0.0001 
    ISOGTT 5.4 (3.7–7.3) 5.4 (3.6–7.3) 3.5 (2.7–5.0) 3.1 (2.2–5.0) <0.0001 
    Insulinogenic index/HOMA-IR 13.9 (9.7–19.6) 12.8 (8.6–18.1) 8.1 (4.6–10.8) 6.2 (3.5–10.3) <0.0001 

Data are means ± SD, medians (interquartile range), or n (%). P values refer to overall differences across groups as derived from ANOVA for continuous variables (parametric test for normally distributed variables and nonparametric test for skewed variables) or a χ2 test for categorical variables (with the exception of smoking exposure, for which Fisher's exact test [Mehta's extension] was used). Family history of diabetes refers to a history of type 2 diabetes in any extended family member.

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