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Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes by weight change–trajectory pattern

Higher stable weightLower stable weightWeight lossWeight gainP*
n (%) 418 (16.2) 1,542 (59.9) 314 (12.2) 300 (11.7)  
Age (years) 52.9 ± 8.9 57.7 ± 10.3 55.9 ± 9.7 54.4 ± 9.9 <0.001 
Female sex 174 (41.6) 876 (56.8) 165 (52.6) 141 (47.0) <0.001 
Weight (kg) 129.4 ± 17.7 89.0 ± 15.0 111.0 ± 20.5 108.0 ± 20.0 <0.001 
BMI (kg/m243.1 ± 7.0 32.3 ± 5.2 38.9 ± 7.2 37.0 ± 7.0 <0.001 
BMI category (kg/m2    <0.001 
    <25 0 (0.0) 97 (6.3) 1 (0.3) 7 (2.3)  
    25 to <30 2 (0.5) 452 (29.3) 19 (6.1) 43 (14.3)  
    30 to <40 147 (35.1) 869 (56.4) 170 (54.1) 157 (52.3)  
    ≥40 269 (64.4) 124 (8.0) 124 (39.5) 93 (31.0)  
Race risk 16 (3.8) 112 (7.3) 12 (3.8) 15 (5.0) 0.012 
Family income <$40,000/year 83 (19.9) 293 (19.0) 47 (15.0) 64 (21.3) 0.205 
Medicaid 17 (4.1) 68 (4.4) 10 (3.2) 15 (5.0) 0.703 
Current smoker 61 (14.6) 254 (16.5) 53 (16.9) 65 (21.7) 0.084 
No. of medications 7.5 ± 5.8 7.7 ± 5.7 7.9 ± 6.0 8.3 ± 6.0 0.241 
    Median (IQR) 6.5 (3–10) 7 (3–11) 7 (4–11) 7 (4–11.5)  
Depression 61 (14.6) 183 (11.9) 45 (14.3) 53 (17.7) 0.035 
Hypertension 237 (56.7) 704 (45.7) 163 (51.9) 137 (45.7) <0.001 
Dyslipidemia 89 (21.3) 405 (26.3) 73 (23.3) 67 (22.3) 0.116 
CVD (excluding CHF) 43 (10.3) 183 (11.9) 30 (9.6) 39 (13.0) 0.450 
Microvascular disease§ 40 (9.6) 114 (7.4) 25 (8.0) 22 (7.3) 0.517 
Asthma/COPD/arthritis 126 (30.1) 393 (25.5) 80 (25.5) 89 (29.7) 0.153 
A1C (year 1) 7.2 ± 1.1 7.1 ± 1.2 6.7 ± 1.0 7.3 ± 1.3 <0.001 
    Median (IQR) 6.9 (6.3–7.8) 6.8 (6.3–7.6) 6.5 (6.0–7.3) 6.9 (6.4–8.0)  
A1C above goal 178 (47.7) 591 (43.6) 97 (33.9) 123 (46.6) <0.001 
Systolic blood pressure# 140.1 ± 13.6 137.6 ± 15.1 138.3 ± 13.8 137.2 ± 15.7 <0.002 
    Median (IQR) 139 (132–147) 136 (127–147) 138 (128–147) 136 (127–147)  
Diastolic blood pressure# 85.9 ± 8.1 82.3 ± 8.0 83.9 ± 7.9 84.1 ± 9.2 <0.001 
    Median (IQR) 86 (80–91) 82 (77–87) 84 (79–89) 84 (79–89)  
Blood pressure above goal 369 (88.3) 1211 (78.5) 257 (81.9) 237 (79.3) <0.001 
Higher stable weightLower stable weightWeight lossWeight gainP*
n (%) 418 (16.2) 1,542 (59.9) 314 (12.2) 300 (11.7)  
Age (years) 52.9 ± 8.9 57.7 ± 10.3 55.9 ± 9.7 54.4 ± 9.9 <0.001 
Female sex 174 (41.6) 876 (56.8) 165 (52.6) 141 (47.0) <0.001 
Weight (kg) 129.4 ± 17.7 89.0 ± 15.0 111.0 ± 20.5 108.0 ± 20.0 <0.001 
BMI (kg/m243.1 ± 7.0 32.3 ± 5.2 38.9 ± 7.2 37.0 ± 7.0 <0.001 
BMI category (kg/m2    <0.001 
    <25 0 (0.0) 97 (6.3) 1 (0.3) 7 (2.3)  
    25 to <30 2 (0.5) 452 (29.3) 19 (6.1) 43 (14.3)  
    30 to <40 147 (35.1) 869 (56.4) 170 (54.1) 157 (52.3)  
    ≥40 269 (64.4) 124 (8.0) 124 (39.5) 93 (31.0)  
Race risk 16 (3.8) 112 (7.3) 12 (3.8) 15 (5.0) 0.012 
Family income <$40,000/year 83 (19.9) 293 (19.0) 47 (15.0) 64 (21.3) 0.205 
Medicaid 17 (4.1) 68 (4.4) 10 (3.2) 15 (5.0) 0.703 
Current smoker 61 (14.6) 254 (16.5) 53 (16.9) 65 (21.7) 0.084 
No. of medications 7.5 ± 5.8 7.7 ± 5.7 7.9 ± 6.0 8.3 ± 6.0 0.241 
    Median (IQR) 6.5 (3–10) 7 (3–11) 7 (4–11) 7 (4–11.5)  
Depression 61 (14.6) 183 (11.9) 45 (14.3) 53 (17.7) 0.035 
Hypertension 237 (56.7) 704 (45.7) 163 (51.9) 137 (45.7) <0.001 
Dyslipidemia 89 (21.3) 405 (26.3) 73 (23.3) 67 (22.3) 0.116 
CVD (excluding CHF) 43 (10.3) 183 (11.9) 30 (9.6) 39 (13.0) 0.450 
Microvascular disease§ 40 (9.6) 114 (7.4) 25 (8.0) 22 (7.3) 0.517 
Asthma/COPD/arthritis 126 (30.1) 393 (25.5) 80 (25.5) 89 (29.7) 0.153 
A1C (year 1) 7.2 ± 1.1 7.1 ± 1.2 6.7 ± 1.0 7.3 ± 1.3 <0.001 
    Median (IQR) 6.9 (6.3–7.8) 6.8 (6.3–7.6) 6.5 (6.0–7.3) 6.9 (6.4–8.0)  
A1C above goal 178 (47.7) 591 (43.6) 97 (33.9) 123 (46.6) <0.001 
Systolic blood pressure# 140.1 ± 13.6 137.6 ± 15.1 138.3 ± 13.8 137.2 ± 15.7 <0.002 
    Median (IQR) 139 (132–147) 136 (127–147) 138 (128–147) 136 (127–147)  
Diastolic blood pressure# 85.9 ± 8.1 82.3 ± 8.0 83.9 ± 7.9 84.1 ± 9.2 <0.001 
    Median (IQR) 86 (80–91) 82 (77–87) 84 (79–89) 84 (79–89)  
Blood pressure above goal 369 (88.3) 1211 (78.5) 257 (81.9) 237 (79.3) <0.001 

Data are means ± SD or n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

*

Comparison across all four groups.

Comparison of weight-gain and weight-loss groups significant at P < 0.05.

Defined as any of the following: African American/Hispanic/American Indian/Pacific Islander.

Combined noncardiovascular diagnoses that may interfere with activity.

§

Retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy grouped together.

‖A1C means based on 373 subjects (89.2%) in higher-stable, 1,355 (87.9%) in lower-stable, 286 (91.1%) in weight-loss, and 264 (88.0%) in weight-gain groups that had one or more measures during year 1.

#

Blood pressure means based on 418 subjects (100%) in higher-stable, 1,542 (100%) in lower-stable, 314 (100%) in weight-loss, and 299 (99.7%) in weight-gain groups that had one or more measures during the baseline year. CHF, congestive heart failure; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; IQR, interquartile range.

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