Skip to Main Content
Table 3—

Impact of 3-year weight change–trajectory pattern and covariates on above-goal A1C* and blood pressure at year 4

Unadjusted model
Adjusted model 1
Adjusted model 2
OR95% CIPOR95% CIPOR95% CIP
A1C outcome          
    Weight trajectory clusters          
        Higher stable weight 2.36 1.64–3.39 <0.0001 1.96 1.34–2.87 0.0006 1.66 1.12–2.47 0.0118 
        Lower stable weight 1.85 1.35–2.53 <0.0001 1.83 1.32–2.55 0.0003 1.52 1.08–2.14 0.0158 
        Weight gain 2.82 1.91–4.16 <0.0001 2.59 1.72–3.91 <0.0001 1.77 1.15–2.72 0.0094 
        Weight loss 1.00 — — 1.00 — — 1.00 — — 
    Age (years)    0.97 0.96–0.98 <0.0001 0.97 0.96–0.98 <0.0001 
    Male sex    1.02 0.84–1.24 0.861 1.07 0.87–1.31 0.541 
    A1C above goal (year 1)    3.35 2.76–4.07 <0.0001 2.42 1.97–2.98 <0.0001 
    Oral hyperglycemic medication class year 4          
        Metformin       1.54 1.14–2.08 0.0047 
        Sulfonylureas       2.16 1.67–2.81 <0.0001 
        Metformin and sulfonylureas       4.40 3.30–5.86 <0.0001 
        Neither sulfonylureas nor metformin       1.00 — — 
        Insulin       2.25 1.41–3.59 0.0006 
Blood pressure outcome          
    Weight-trajectory clusters          
        Higher stable weight 1.82 1.31–2.52 0.0003 1.84 1.32–2.58 0.0004 1.83 1.31–2.57 0.0004 
        Lower stable weight 1.06 0.82–1.37 0.666 1.05 0.80–1.37 0.736 1.05 0.80–1.38 0.710 
        Weight gain 1.35 0.96–1.90 0.088 1.47 1.03–2.09 0.0348 1.47 1.03–2.10 0.0347 
        Weight loss 1.00 — — 1.00 — — 1.00 — — 
    Age (years) —   1.02 1.01–1.03 0.0001 1.02 1.01–1.03 0.0008 
    Male sex    0.81 0.68–0.96 0.0169 0.81 0.68–0.97 0.0203 
    Blood pressure above goal (baseline)§    3.02 2.45–3.73 <0.0001 2.94 2.37–3.64 <0.0001 
    Blood pressure medication class year 4          
        β-blockers       0.88 0.73–1.07 0.193 
        Diuretics       1.05 0.86–1.29 0.609 
        ACE inhibitor/ARB       1.04 0.86–1.25 0.691 
        Other antihypertensives       1.33 1.05–1.69 0.0194 
Unadjusted model
Adjusted model 1
Adjusted model 2
OR95% CIPOR95% CIPOR95% CIP
A1C outcome          
    Weight trajectory clusters          
        Higher stable weight 2.36 1.64–3.39 <0.0001 1.96 1.34–2.87 0.0006 1.66 1.12–2.47 0.0118 
        Lower stable weight 1.85 1.35–2.53 <0.0001 1.83 1.32–2.55 0.0003 1.52 1.08–2.14 0.0158 
        Weight gain 2.82 1.91–4.16 <0.0001 2.59 1.72–3.91 <0.0001 1.77 1.15–2.72 0.0094 
        Weight loss 1.00 — — 1.00 — — 1.00 — — 
    Age (years)    0.97 0.96–0.98 <0.0001 0.97 0.96–0.98 <0.0001 
    Male sex    1.02 0.84–1.24 0.861 1.07 0.87–1.31 0.541 
    A1C above goal (year 1)    3.35 2.76–4.07 <0.0001 2.42 1.97–2.98 <0.0001 
    Oral hyperglycemic medication class year 4          
        Metformin       1.54 1.14–2.08 0.0047 
        Sulfonylureas       2.16 1.67–2.81 <0.0001 
        Metformin and sulfonylureas       4.40 3.30–5.86 <0.0001 
        Neither sulfonylureas nor metformin       1.00 — — 
        Insulin       2.25 1.41–3.59 0.0006 
Blood pressure outcome          
    Weight-trajectory clusters          
        Higher stable weight 1.82 1.31–2.52 0.0003 1.84 1.32–2.58 0.0004 1.83 1.31–2.57 0.0004 
        Lower stable weight 1.06 0.82–1.37 0.666 1.05 0.80–1.37 0.736 1.05 0.80–1.38 0.710 
        Weight gain 1.35 0.96–1.90 0.088 1.47 1.03–2.09 0.0348 1.47 1.03–2.10 0.0347 
        Weight loss 1.00 — — 1.00 — — 1.00 — — 
    Age (years) —   1.02 1.01–1.03 0.0001 1.02 1.01–1.03 0.0008 
    Male sex    0.81 0.68–0.96 0.0169 0.81 0.68–0.97 0.0203 
    Blood pressure above goal (baseline)§    3.02 2.45–3.73 <0.0001 2.94 2.37–3.64 <0.0001 
    Blood pressure medication class year 4          
        β-blockers       0.88 0.73–1.07 0.193 
        Diuretics       1.05 0.86–1.29 0.609 
        ACE inhibitor/ARB       1.04 0.86–1.25 0.691 
        Other antihypertensives       1.33 1.05–1.69 0.0194 
*

A1C models include the 1,911 (74.2%) patients who had one or more A1C measure in both years 1 and 4; above-goal is A1C ≥7%.

Blood pressure models include the 2,409 (93.6%) patients that had one or more blood pressure measurement at both baseline and year 4; above-goal is ≥130/80 mmHg.

These subgroups also contain 23 (1.2%) patients taking a thiazolidinedione or acarbose during year 4. No patients were taking repaglinide during year 4.

§

Baseline blood pressure control based upon mean in 12-month pre-index of <130/80 mmHg.

Includes all remaining classes of medication used for hypertension. ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal