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Table 1—

Characteristics by diabetes status

CharacteristicProbands with diabetesSiblings without diabetes
n 48 47 
Age at exam (years) 17.1 ± 5.7 15.4 ± 3.7 
Tanner stage (pubic hair) (%)   
    1 4.2 14.9 
    2 8.3 6.4 
    3 18.7 8.5 
    4 31.3 29.8 
    5 37.5 40.4 
Sex (%)   
    Female 52.1 40.4 
    Male 47.9 59.6 
Race/ethnicity (%)   
    Non-Hispanic white 33.3 44.7 
    Non-Hispanic black 39.5 23.4 
    Other 6.3 10.6 
    Mixed 14.6 14.9 
    Mexican Hispanic 6.3 6.4 
Anthropometrics   
    BMI Z score* 0.8 ± 0.9 0.4 ± 1.2 
    Body fat (%) 27.5 ± 10.0 22.3 ± 11.7 
    Waist circumference (cm) 78.7 ± 13.7 74.0 ± 13.4 
Blood measurements   
    Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 199.8 ± 101.2 90.1 ± 6.9 
    A1C (%) 8.6 ± 2.0 5.1 ± 0.3 
    Fasting C-peptide (nmol/l) 0.3 ± 0.4 0.7 ± 0.4 
    Absent C-peptide (%) 66.7  
Diabetes duration (years) 7.7 ± 6.1  
Age at diagnosis (years) 9.4 ± 3.7  
Diabetes treatment (%)   
    Insulin only 91.6  
    Insulin and pills 4.2  
    Pills only 4.2  
Insulin therapy (%)§   
    1–2 injections/day 41.3  
    3–4 injections/day 37.0  
    Pump 21.7  
Diabetes type (%)   
    Type 1 diabetes 75.0  
    Type 2 diabetes 16.7  
    Mixed 8.3  
Insulin resistance   
    Fasting insulin (μU/ml)  9.5 ± 10.1 
    HOMA2 (using fasting insulin)  1.2 ± 1.2 
    Insulin resistant (%)  4.3 
CharacteristicProbands with diabetesSiblings without diabetes
n 48 47 
Age at exam (years) 17.1 ± 5.7 15.4 ± 3.7 
Tanner stage (pubic hair) (%)   
    1 4.2 14.9 
    2 8.3 6.4 
    3 18.7 8.5 
    4 31.3 29.8 
    5 37.5 40.4 
Sex (%)   
    Female 52.1 40.4 
    Male 47.9 59.6 
Race/ethnicity (%)   
    Non-Hispanic white 33.3 44.7 
    Non-Hispanic black 39.5 23.4 
    Other 6.3 10.6 
    Mixed 14.6 14.9 
    Mexican Hispanic 6.3 6.4 
Anthropometrics   
    BMI Z score* 0.8 ± 0.9 0.4 ± 1.2 
    Body fat (%) 27.5 ± 10.0 22.3 ± 11.7 
    Waist circumference (cm) 78.7 ± 13.7 74.0 ± 13.4 
Blood measurements   
    Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 199.8 ± 101.2 90.1 ± 6.9 
    A1C (%) 8.6 ± 2.0 5.1 ± 0.3 
    Fasting C-peptide (nmol/l) 0.3 ± 0.4 0.7 ± 0.4 
    Absent C-peptide (%) 66.7  
Diabetes duration (years) 7.7 ± 6.1  
Age at diagnosis (years) 9.4 ± 3.7  
Diabetes treatment (%)   
    Insulin only 91.6  
    Insulin and pills 4.2  
    Pills only 4.2  
Insulin therapy (%)§   
    1–2 injections/day 41.3  
    3–4 injections/day 37.0  
    Pump 21.7  
Diabetes type (%)   
    Type 1 diabetes 75.0  
    Type 2 diabetes 16.7  
    Mixed 8.3  
Insulin resistance   
    Fasting insulin (μU/ml)  9.5 ± 10.1 
    HOMA2 (using fasting insulin)  1.2 ± 1.2 
    Insulin resistant (%)  4.3 

Data are means ± SD or percent. To convert milligrams per deciliter to millimole per liter for glucose, multiply by 0.055; to convert microunits per milliliter to picomole per liter for insulin, multiply by 6.0.

*

BMI was transformed into Z scores using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Growth Chart (age ≤20 years) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (age >20 years) age- and sex-matched reference data.

P < 0.05.

P < 0.0001.

§

Subgroup using insulin, n = 46.

Diabetes type based on C-peptide levels, presence of diabetes antibodies, diabetes treatment, symptoms while off of insulin, and duration.

Insulin resistant criteria based on fasting insulin HOMA2: 1) if age ≤18 years, insulin resistance defined as HOMA2 ≥3.2 and 2) if age >18 years, insulin resistance defined as HOMA2 ≥2.5.

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