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Table 1—

Descriptive characteristics of control women and women who developed type 2 diabetes

Control subjectsCase patientsP
n 787 705  
Age (years) 56.7 ± 6.9 56.8 ± 6.8 NS 
BMI (kg/m226.4 ± 6.1 30.4 ± 5.6 <0.001 
Physical activity (METs/week) 15.6 ± 27.1 12.1 ± 14.7 0.002 
Alcohol consumption (g/day) 1.8 (0–6.9) 0 (0–2.7) <0.001 
Smoking (%)    
    Never 46.0 43.7 NS 
    Past 41.4 42.8 NS 
    Current 12.6 13.5 NS 
Family history of diabetes (%) 20.1 44.8 <0.001 
Postmenopausal (%) 78.5 81.1 NS 
Nutrients*    
    Energy (kcal) 1769 ± 512 1817 ± 561 NS 
    Saturated fatty acids (g) 20.9 ± 8.4 22.4 ± 9.3 0.002 
    Trans fatty acids (g) 3.0 ± 1.5 3.2 ± 1.6 0.005 
    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (g) 11.7 ± 5.1 12.1 ± 5.0 NS 
    Fiber (g) 19.9 ± 8.0 20.0 ± 8.3 NS 
    Glycemic load 117.4 ± 41.9 120.8 ± 44.8 NS 
    Coffee consumption (cups/day) 2.2 ± 1.8 2.0 ± 1.7 0.03 
Biomarkers    
    Insulin (μU/ml) 7.5 (4.2–11.0) 11.2 (7.1–17.1) <0.001 
    CRP (mg/dl) 0.16 (0.07–0.35) 0.37 (0.20–0.63) <0.001 
    VCAM-1 (ng/ml) 526.0 (444.0–614.2) 545.1 (458.8–646.8) 0.003 
    ICAM-1 (ng/ml) 247.3 (218.1–277.4) 264.5 (233.2–316.9) <0.001 
    E-selectin (ng/ml) 45.4 (33.8–60.1) 61.5 (45.4–80.6) <0.001 
    TNF-R2 (pg/ml) 2396 (2,013–2,861) 2638 (2,209–3,158) <0.001 
    IL-6 (ng/ml) 1.8 (1.2–2.7) 2.4 (1.7–3.5) <0.001 
    Adiponectin (μg/ml) 17.7 (12.2–22.6) 10.1 (6.8–15.1) <0.001 
Control subjectsCase patientsP
n 787 705  
Age (years) 56.7 ± 6.9 56.8 ± 6.8 NS 
BMI (kg/m226.4 ± 6.1 30.4 ± 5.6 <0.001 
Physical activity (METs/week) 15.6 ± 27.1 12.1 ± 14.7 0.002 
Alcohol consumption (g/day) 1.8 (0–6.9) 0 (0–2.7) <0.001 
Smoking (%)    
    Never 46.0 43.7 NS 
    Past 41.4 42.8 NS 
    Current 12.6 13.5 NS 
Family history of diabetes (%) 20.1 44.8 <0.001 
Postmenopausal (%) 78.5 81.1 NS 
Nutrients*    
    Energy (kcal) 1769 ± 512 1817 ± 561 NS 
    Saturated fatty acids (g) 20.9 ± 8.4 22.4 ± 9.3 0.002 
    Trans fatty acids (g) 3.0 ± 1.5 3.2 ± 1.6 0.005 
    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (g) 11.7 ± 5.1 12.1 ± 5.0 NS 
    Fiber (g) 19.9 ± 8.0 20.0 ± 8.3 NS 
    Glycemic load 117.4 ± 41.9 120.8 ± 44.8 NS 
    Coffee consumption (cups/day) 2.2 ± 1.8 2.0 ± 1.7 0.03 
Biomarkers    
    Insulin (μU/ml) 7.5 (4.2–11.0) 11.2 (7.1–17.1) <0.001 
    CRP (mg/dl) 0.16 (0.07–0.35) 0.37 (0.20–0.63) <0.001 
    VCAM-1 (ng/ml) 526.0 (444.0–614.2) 545.1 (458.8–646.8) 0.003 
    ICAM-1 (ng/ml) 247.3 (218.1–277.4) 264.5 (233.2–316.9) <0.001 
    E-selectin (ng/ml) 45.4 (33.8–60.1) 61.5 (45.4–80.6) <0.001 
    TNF-R2 (pg/ml) 2396 (2,013–2,861) 2638 (2,209–3,158) <0.001 
    IL-6 (ng/ml) 1.8 (1.2–2.7) 2.4 (1.7–3.5) <0.001 
    Adiponectin (μg/ml) 17.7 (12.2–22.6) 10.1 (6.8–15.1) <0.001 

Data are means ± SD or median (interquartile range) if not normally distributed.

*

All nutrients are energy adjusted except energy.

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