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Table 1—

Depression symptoms and antidepressant use at baseline and during the DPP

CharacteristicAt baseline
During DPP
nBDI ≥11 [n(%)]Antidepressant medicine use [n(%)]Total person-yearsBDI ≥11 [person-years (% of total person-years)]Intermittent use [person-years (% of total person-years)]Continuous use [person-years (% of total person-years)]
Total participants 3,187 328 (10.3) 181 (5.7) 8,637.1 1,302.1 (15.1) 622.0 (7.2) 272.4 (3.2) 
Age (years)     *   
    25–44 983 115 (11.7) 47 (4.8) 2,628.2 460.3 (17.5) 223.4 (8.5) 53.7 (2.0) 
    45–59 1,567 160 (10.2) 102 (6.5) 4,267.2 639.6 (15.0) 318.6 (7.5) 151.7 (3.6) 
    ≥60 637 53 (8.3) 32 (5.0) 1,741.7 202.1 (11.6) 80.0 (4.6) 66.9 (3.8) 
Sex        
    Female 2,158 255 (11.8) 160 (7.4) 5,854.1 1,011.2 (17.3) 520.0 (8.9) 240.4 (4.1) 
    Male 1,029 73 (7.1) 21 (2.0) 2,783.0 290.9 (10.5) 102.0 (3.7) 32.0 (1.1) 
Race/ethnicity        
    White 1,746 132 (7.6) 144 (8.2) 4,736.0 578.6 (12.2) 436.2 (9.2) 238.0 (5.0) 
    African American 636 81 (12.7) 11 (1.7) 1,690.0 299.0 (17.7) 66.8 (4.0) 9.2 (0.5) 
    Hispanic 498 67 (13.5) 18 (3.6) 1,343.8 244.3 (18.2) 75.4 (5.6) 21.0 (1.6) 
    American Indian 165 33 (20.0) 6 (3.6) 460.4 125.4 (27.2) 32.4 (7.0) 1.3 (0.3) 
    Asian 142 15 (10.6) 2 (1.4) 406.8 54.8 (13.5) 11.1 (2.7) 3.0 (0.7) 
Education in years   *   *  
    ≤12 822 122 (14.8) 33 (4.0) 2,249.2 453.2 (20.1) 137.8 (6.1) 54.5 (2.4) 
    13–16 1,534 152 (9.9) 91 (5.9) 4,176.7 615.2 (14.7) 302.7 (7.2) 129.8 (3.1) 
    ≥17 831 54 (6.5) 57 (6.9) 2,211.2 233.7 (10.6) 181.5 (8.2) 88.1 (4.0) 
CharacteristicAt baseline
During DPP
nBDI ≥11 [n(%)]Antidepressant medicine use [n(%)]Total person-yearsBDI ≥11 [person-years (% of total person-years)]Intermittent use [person-years (% of total person-years)]Continuous use [person-years (% of total person-years)]
Total participants 3,187 328 (10.3) 181 (5.7) 8,637.1 1,302.1 (15.1) 622.0 (7.2) 272.4 (3.2) 
Age (years)     *   
    25–44 983 115 (11.7) 47 (4.8) 2,628.2 460.3 (17.5) 223.4 (8.5) 53.7 (2.0) 
    45–59 1,567 160 (10.2) 102 (6.5) 4,267.2 639.6 (15.0) 318.6 (7.5) 151.7 (3.6) 
    ≥60 637 53 (8.3) 32 (5.0) 1,741.7 202.1 (11.6) 80.0 (4.6) 66.9 (3.8) 
Sex        
    Female 2,158 255 (11.8) 160 (7.4) 5,854.1 1,011.2 (17.3) 520.0 (8.9) 240.4 (4.1) 
    Male 1,029 73 (7.1) 21 (2.0) 2,783.0 290.9 (10.5) 102.0 (3.7) 32.0 (1.1) 
Race/ethnicity        
    White 1,746 132 (7.6) 144 (8.2) 4,736.0 578.6 (12.2) 436.2 (9.2) 238.0 (5.0) 
    African American 636 81 (12.7) 11 (1.7) 1,690.0 299.0 (17.7) 66.8 (4.0) 9.2 (0.5) 
    Hispanic 498 67 (13.5) 18 (3.6) 1,343.8 244.3 (18.2) 75.4 (5.6) 21.0 (1.6) 
    American Indian 165 33 (20.0) 6 (3.6) 460.4 125.4 (27.2) 32.4 (7.0) 1.3 (0.3) 
    Asian 142 15 (10.6) 2 (1.4) 406.8 54.8 (13.5) 11.1 (2.7) 3.0 (0.7) 
Education in years   *   *  
    ≤12 822 122 (14.8) 33 (4.0) 2,249.2 453.2 (20.1) 137.8 (6.1) 54.5 (2.4) 
    13–16 1,534 152 (9.9) 91 (5.9) 4,176.7 615.2 (14.7) 302.7 (7.2) 129.8 (3.1) 
    ≥17 831 54 (6.5) 57 (6.9) 2,211.2 233.7 (10.6) 181.5 (8.2) 88.1 (4.0) 
 BDI ≥11 (means ± SD)  Antidepressant use (means ± SD)  BDI ≥11 (least-square means ± SE)  Antidepressant use (least-square means ± SE)   
 No Yes No Yes No Yes Never exposed Intermittent use Continuous use 
Weight (kg) 94.1 ± 20.1 95.6 ± 21.3 94.0 ± 20.2 97.8 ± 20.9* 93.2 ± 0.4 93.8 ± 0.4* 93.3 ± 0.4 93.1 ± 0.4 94.7 ± 0.6* 
BMI (kg/m233.8 ± 6.6 35.5 ± 7.0 33.9 ± 6.7 35.8 ± 7.1 33.6 ± 0.1 33.9 ± 0.1* 33.6 ± 0.1 33.6 ± 0.1 34.2 ± 0.2 
Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 106.5 ± 8.2 106.6 ± 8.9 106.6 ± 8.3 105.3 ± 8.2* 105.7 ± 0.1 106.2 ± 0.3 105.8 ± 0.1 105.8 ± 0.4 105.6 ± 0.6 
Fasting insulin (μU/ml) 26.6 ± 15.2 28.5 ± 14.9* 26.8 ± 15.3 26.5 ± 13.9 25.0 ± 0.2 27.4 ± 0.5 25.3 ± 0.2 26.7 ± 0.7 25.1 ± 0.9 
Leisure activity (MET-hours) 16.6 ± 26.1 14.5 ± 25.0 16.5 ± 26.2 14.4 ± 22.4 18.6 ± 0.3 15.8 ± 0.7 18.4 ± 0.3 15.7 ± 1.0 15.0 ± 1.4* 
 BDI ≥11 (means ± SD)  Antidepressant use (means ± SD)  BDI ≥11 (least-square means ± SE)  Antidepressant use (least-square means ± SE)   
 No Yes No Yes No Yes Never exposed Intermittent use Continuous use 
Weight (kg) 94.1 ± 20.1 95.6 ± 21.3 94.0 ± 20.2 97.8 ± 20.9* 93.2 ± 0.4 93.8 ± 0.4* 93.3 ± 0.4 93.1 ± 0.4 94.7 ± 0.6* 
BMI (kg/m233.8 ± 6.6 35.5 ± 7.0 33.9 ± 6.7 35.8 ± 7.1 33.6 ± 0.1 33.9 ± 0.1* 33.6 ± 0.1 33.6 ± 0.1 34.2 ± 0.2 
Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 106.5 ± 8.2 106.6 ± 8.9 106.6 ± 8.3 105.3 ± 8.2* 105.7 ± 0.1 106.2 ± 0.3 105.8 ± 0.1 105.8 ± 0.4 105.6 ± 0.6 
Fasting insulin (μU/ml) 26.6 ± 15.2 28.5 ± 14.9* 26.8 ± 15.3 26.5 ± 13.9 25.0 ± 0.2 27.4 ± 0.5 25.3 ± 0.2 26.7 ± 0.7 25.1 ± 0.9 
Leisure activity (MET-hours) 16.6 ± 26.1 14.5 ± 25.0 16.5 ± 26.2 14.4 ± 22.4 18.6 ± 0.3 15.8 ± 0.7 18.4 ± 0.3 15.7 ± 1.0 15.0 ± 1.4* 

Significance levels of differences in depression symptoms or antidepressant use are noted as follows:

*

P < 0.05;

P < 0.0001;

P < 0.001.

Thus † noted for sex in column “BDI ≥11” (at baseline) indicates that the proportion of those with elevated baseline BDI scores differed by sex with P < 0.001. During DPP, variables age, sex, race/ethnicity, and education remain the same. Variables weight, BMI, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and leisure activity are measured repeatedly during the study, and repeated-model–based means are reported.

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