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Table 1—

Characteristics of participants in MESA

Glucose status (n = 5,976)
P*Diabetes (n = 892)
P
NFGIFGDiabetesNo retinopathyRetinopathy
 n = 4,585  n = 499  n = 892  n = 727 n = 165  
Sex (male) 2,110 (46.0)  287 (57.5)  465 (52.1) <0.001 382 (52.3) 83 (51.6) 0.87 
Alcohol consumption 2,476 (54.2)  270 (54.3)  328 (37.0) <0.001 271 (37.3) 57 (35.6) 0.70 
Current cigarette smoker 553 (12.1)  43 (8.6)  97 (10.9) 0.06 86 (11.8) 11 (6.8) 0.07 
Hypertension 1,947 (42.5)  300 (60.1)  654 (73.3) <0.001 524 (71.7) 130 (80.7) 0.02 
Oral diabetic medication —  —  562 (64.8) — 449 (63.2) 113 (72.0) 0.04 
Insulin —  —  97 (11.2) — 58 (8.2) 39 (24.8) <0.001 
Age (years) 62.7 ± 10.1  63.9 ± 9.5  65.2 ± 9.2 <0.001 65.5 ± 9.2 63.8 ± 9.0 0.04 
Diabetes duration (years) —  —  5.3 ± 7.7 — 4.2 ± 6.8 10.3 ± 9.6 <0.001 
Serum glucose (mg/dl) 94.6 ± 8.3  115.4 ± 4.4  154.2 ± 54.3 <0.001 149.9 ± 50.4 173.7 ± 66.0 <0.001 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 122.4 ± 20.2  127.7 ± 21.3  130.5 ± 21.4 <0.001 129.7 ± 20.2 134.1 ± 25.9 0.02 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 70.3 ± 10.0  72.1 ± 10.1  70.6 ± 10.4 0.001 70.8 ± 10.2 69.5 ± 11.2 0.13 
BMI (kg/m227.7 ± 5.2  30.5 ± 5.6  30.9 ± 6.0 <0.001 30.8 ± 5.9 31.2 ± 6.4 0.46 
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 193.3 ± 34.9  191.4 ± 38.1  181.8 ± 37.3 <0.001 181.7 ± 36.4 182.5 ± 41.3 0.81 
HDL cholesterol, mg/dl 53.3 ± 15.4  48.0 ± 13.4  46.5 ± 12.8 <0.001 46.5 ± 13.0 46.5 ± 11.8 0.98 
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 115.3 ± 31.8  113.9 ± 33.6  105.0 ± 32.0 <0.001 104.5 ± 31.1 107.1 ± 35.9 0.35 
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 124.8 ± 72.2  148.6 ± 90.2  158.4 ± 114.4 <0.001 160.0 ± 114.3 151.2 ± 114.7 0.38 
CRP (mg/dl) 1.70 ± 3.18  2.31 ± 3.67  2.57 ± 4.67 <0.001 2.58 ± 3.26 2.53 ± 4.64 0.89 
Glucose status (n = 5,976)
P*Diabetes (n = 892)
P
NFGIFGDiabetesNo retinopathyRetinopathy
 n = 4,585  n = 499  n = 892  n = 727 n = 165  
Sex (male) 2,110 (46.0)  287 (57.5)  465 (52.1) <0.001 382 (52.3) 83 (51.6) 0.87 
Alcohol consumption 2,476 (54.2)  270 (54.3)  328 (37.0) <0.001 271 (37.3) 57 (35.6) 0.70 
Current cigarette smoker 553 (12.1)  43 (8.6)  97 (10.9) 0.06 86 (11.8) 11 (6.8) 0.07 
Hypertension 1,947 (42.5)  300 (60.1)  654 (73.3) <0.001 524 (71.7) 130 (80.7) 0.02 
Oral diabetic medication —  —  562 (64.8) — 449 (63.2) 113 (72.0) 0.04 
Insulin —  —  97 (11.2) — 58 (8.2) 39 (24.8) <0.001 
Age (years) 62.7 ± 10.1  63.9 ± 9.5  65.2 ± 9.2 <0.001 65.5 ± 9.2 63.8 ± 9.0 0.04 
Diabetes duration (years) —  —  5.3 ± 7.7 — 4.2 ± 6.8 10.3 ± 9.6 <0.001 
Serum glucose (mg/dl) 94.6 ± 8.3  115.4 ± 4.4  154.2 ± 54.3 <0.001 149.9 ± 50.4 173.7 ± 66.0 <0.001 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 122.4 ± 20.2  127.7 ± 21.3  130.5 ± 21.4 <0.001 129.7 ± 20.2 134.1 ± 25.9 0.02 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 70.3 ± 10.0  72.1 ± 10.1  70.6 ± 10.4 0.001 70.8 ± 10.2 69.5 ± 11.2 0.13 
BMI (kg/m227.7 ± 5.2  30.5 ± 5.6  30.9 ± 6.0 <0.001 30.8 ± 5.9 31.2 ± 6.4 0.46 
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 193.3 ± 34.9  191.4 ± 38.1  181.8 ± 37.3 <0.001 181.7 ± 36.4 182.5 ± 41.3 0.81 
HDL cholesterol, mg/dl 53.3 ± 15.4  48.0 ± 13.4  46.5 ± 12.8 <0.001 46.5 ± 13.0 46.5 ± 11.8 0.98 
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 115.3 ± 31.8  113.9 ± 33.6  105.0 ± 32.0 <0.001 104.5 ± 31.1 107.1 ± 35.9 0.35 
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 124.8 ± 72.2  148.6 ± 90.2  158.4 ± 114.4 <0.001 160.0 ± 114.3 151.2 ± 114.7 0.38 
CRP (mg/dl) 1.70 ± 3.18  2.31 ± 3.67  2.57 ± 4.67 <0.001 2.58 ± 3.26 2.53 ± 4.64 0.89 

Data are n (%) or means ± SD and are shown as median and interquartile range.

*

P based on χ2 (categorical), ANOVA (quantitative and normal), or Kruskal-Wallis test (quantitative and skewed), comparing NFG, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and diabetes.

P based on χ2 (categorical), ANOVA (quantitative and normal), or Kruskal-Wallis test (quantitative and skewed), comparing diabetes with and without retinopathy.

Results are shown as median and interquartile range.

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