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Table 2—

Relationship of retinal arteriolar and venular caliber with fasting glucose status: all individuals and by racial/ethnic groups

Retinal vascular caliber (μm)
NFGIFGDiabetesP for trend
n 4,585 499 892  
Retinal arteriolar caliber (CRAE)     
    Model 1* 144.0 ± 0.24 143.9 ± 0.63 145.3 ± 0.48 0.009 
    Model 2     
All individuals 143.8 ± 0.24 144.5 ± 0.62 146.1 ± 0.48 <0.001 
White 141.6 ± 0.35 144.3 ± 1.05 144.2 ± 1.02 0.02 
Black 144.8 ± 0.44 144.6 ± 1.15 146.0 ± 0.80 0.19 
Hispanic 139.7 ± 2.36 141.6 ± 2.65 142.2 ± 2.48 0.008 
Chinese 144.5 ± 3.35 141.3 ± 3.83 148.2 ± 3.61 0.01 
    Model 3§     
All individuals 143.7 ± 0.20 143.6 ± 0.54 144.9 ± 0.42 0.008 
White 141.8 ± 0.29 143.5 ± 0.87 144.3 ± 0.85 0.006 
Black 144.9 ± 0.39 142.8 ± 1.01 145.4 ± 0.71 0.57 
Hispanic 140.5 ± 2.10 141.7 ± 2.36 141.8 ± 2.212 0.13 
Chinese 144.2 ± 2.86 141.9 ± 3.27 144.7 ± 3.09 0.70 
Retinal venular caliber (CRVE)     
    Model 1* 214.1 ± 0.35 217.1 ± 0.94 218.0 ± 0.72 <0.001 
    Model 2     
All individuals 214.4 ± 0.36 216.7 ± 0.95 218.0 ± 0.73 <0.001 
White 206.0 ± 0.54 208.8 ± 1.58 206.5 ± 1.55 0.74 
Black 221.4 ± 0.69 224.2 ± 1.81 224.0 ± 1.27 0.07 
Hispanic 214.4 ± 3.66 217.1 ± 4.10 219.4 ± 3.85 0.001 
Chinese 215.9 ± 4.75 213.6 ± 5.42 225.1 ± 5.11 <0.001 
    Model 3§     
All individuals 214.7 ± 0.31 216.5 ± 0.82 216.3 ± 0.63 0.02 
White 206.9 ± 0.44 207.4 ± 1.31 205.2 ± 1.29 0.22 
Black 221.8 ± 0.61 225.5 ± 1.59 223.3 ± 1.12 0.23 
Hispanic 218.9 ± 3.28 220.3 ± 3.68 221.8 ± 3.44 0.03 
Chinese 214.8 ± 4.05 214.9 ± 4.64 221.0 ± 4.37 0.001 
Retinal vascular caliber (μm)
NFGIFGDiabetesP for trend
n 4,585 499 892  
Retinal arteriolar caliber (CRAE)     
    Model 1* 144.0 ± 0.24 143.9 ± 0.63 145.3 ± 0.48 0.009 
    Model 2     
All individuals 143.8 ± 0.24 144.5 ± 0.62 146.1 ± 0.48 <0.001 
White 141.6 ± 0.35 144.3 ± 1.05 144.2 ± 1.02 0.02 
Black 144.8 ± 0.44 144.6 ± 1.15 146.0 ± 0.80 0.19 
Hispanic 139.7 ± 2.36 141.6 ± 2.65 142.2 ± 2.48 0.008 
Chinese 144.5 ± 3.35 141.3 ± 3.83 148.2 ± 3.61 0.01 
    Model 3§     
All individuals 143.7 ± 0.20 143.6 ± 0.54 144.9 ± 0.42 0.008 
White 141.8 ± 0.29 143.5 ± 0.87 144.3 ± 0.85 0.006 
Black 144.9 ± 0.39 142.8 ± 1.01 145.4 ± 0.71 0.57 
Hispanic 140.5 ± 2.10 141.7 ± 2.36 141.8 ± 2.212 0.13 
Chinese 144.2 ± 2.86 141.9 ± 3.27 144.7 ± 3.09 0.70 
Retinal venular caliber (CRVE)     
    Model 1* 214.1 ± 0.35 217.1 ± 0.94 218.0 ± 0.72 <0.001 
    Model 2     
All individuals 214.4 ± 0.36 216.7 ± 0.95 218.0 ± 0.73 <0.001 
White 206.0 ± 0.54 208.8 ± 1.58 206.5 ± 1.55 0.74 
Black 221.4 ± 0.69 224.2 ± 1.81 224.0 ± 1.27 0.07 
Hispanic 214.4 ± 3.66 217.1 ± 4.10 219.4 ± 3.85 0.001 
Chinese 215.9 ± 4.75 213.6 ± 5.42 225.1 ± 5.11 <0.001 
    Model 3§     
All individuals 214.7 ± 0.31 216.5 ± 0.82 216.3 ± 0.63 0.02 
White 206.9 ± 0.44 207.4 ± 1.31 205.2 ± 1.29 0.22 
Black 221.8 ± 0.61 225.5 ± 1.59 223.3 ± 1.12 0.23 
Hispanic 218.9 ± 3.28 220.3 ± 3.68 221.8 ± 3.44 0.03 
Chinese 214.8 ± 4.05 214.9 ± 4.64 221.0 ± 4.37 0.001 

Data are ANCOVA models showing mean ± SE of retinal arteriolar and venular caliber (in μm).

*

Model 1: Adjusted for age, race, sex, and study center.

Model 2: Adjusted for age, race (except for race-specific models), sex, study center, systolic blood pressure, BMI, total cholesterol, triglycerides, current smoking, and CRP. §Model 3: Adjusted for variables in model 2 and venular caliber (in models of arteriolar caliber) and arteriolar caliber (in models of venular caliber);

P < 0.05 comparing specific group with NFG group.

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