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Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of 21,663 men with elevated blood glucose grouped by diabetic status and fitness level, ACLS, 1973–2003

Fitness level
Individuals with pre-diabetes (n = 18,858)
Individuals with diabetes (n = 2,805)
LowModerateHighP valueLowModerateHighP value
n 3,299 7,333 8,226  857 1,147 801  
Age (years)* 44.6 ± 9.3 45.8 ± 9.5 46.3 ± 9.7 <0.001 48.6 ± 10.0 50.1 ± 9.3 50.6 ± 9.9 <0.001 
BMI (kg/m2)* 29.8 ± 5.2 27.1 ± 3.3 25.3 ± 2.6 <0.001 31.0 ± 5.7 27.7 ± 3.7 25.1 ± 2.7 <0.001 
Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 108.0 ± 6.3 106.7 ± 5.8 105.5 ± 5.1 0.002 150.0 ± 60.0 131.4 ± 45.0 125.6 ± 48.9 0.94 
Previous cancer 63 (1.9) 144 (2.0) 250 (3.0) <0.001 24 (2.8) 33 (2.9) 32 (4.0) 0.28 
Alcohol use 2,414 (73.2) 5,697 (77.7) 6,387 (77.7) <0.001 612 (71.4) 838 (73.1) 618 (77.2) 0.02 
Insulin use NA NA NA NA 54 (6.3) 153 (13.3) 171 (21.4) <0.001 
Cigarette smoking         
    Never 1,067 (32.3) 3,077 (41.9) 4,220 (51.3) <0.001 268 (31.3) 498 (43.4) 437 (54.6) <0.001 
    Past 1,167 (35.4) 2,743 (37.4) 3,182 (38.7)  325 (37.9) 458 (39.9) 296 (36.9)  
    Current 1,065 (32.2) 1,513 (20.6) 824 (10.0)  264 (30.8) 191 (16.7) 68 (8.5)  
Fitness level
Individuals with pre-diabetes (n = 18,858)
Individuals with diabetes (n = 2,805)
LowModerateHighP valueLowModerateHighP value
n 3,299 7,333 8,226  857 1,147 801  
Age (years)* 44.6 ± 9.3 45.8 ± 9.5 46.3 ± 9.7 <0.001 48.6 ± 10.0 50.1 ± 9.3 50.6 ± 9.9 <0.001 
BMI (kg/m2)* 29.8 ± 5.2 27.1 ± 3.3 25.3 ± 2.6 <0.001 31.0 ± 5.7 27.7 ± 3.7 25.1 ± 2.7 <0.001 
Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 108.0 ± 6.3 106.7 ± 5.8 105.5 ± 5.1 0.002 150.0 ± 60.0 131.4 ± 45.0 125.6 ± 48.9 0.94 
Previous cancer 63 (1.9) 144 (2.0) 250 (3.0) <0.001 24 (2.8) 33 (2.9) 32 (4.0) 0.28 
Alcohol use 2,414 (73.2) 5,697 (77.7) 6,387 (77.7) <0.001 612 (71.4) 838 (73.1) 618 (77.2) 0.02 
Insulin use NA NA NA NA 54 (6.3) 153 (13.3) 171 (21.4) <0.001 
Cigarette smoking         
    Never 1,067 (32.3) 3,077 (41.9) 4,220 (51.3) <0.001 268 (31.3) 498 (43.4) 437 (54.6) <0.001 
    Past 1,167 (35.4) 2,743 (37.4) 3,182 (38.7)  325 (37.9) 458 (39.9) 296 (36.9)  
    Current 1,065 (32.2) 1,513 (20.6) 824 (10.0)  264 (30.8) 191 (16.7) 68 (8.5)  

Data are reported as means ± SD or n (%). Fitness was defined categorically as low (lowest 20%), moderate (middle 40%), or high (upper 40%) of the previously published age-specific distribution of maximal exercise duration from the ACLS population (24). NA, not applicable.

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