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Table 3—

Associations with hospitalization rates and charges

Educational variable (each educational variable was modeled separately)Unadjusted models
Adjusted models*
Hospitalizations per 100 person-yearsHospital charges
Hospitalizations per 100 person-years
Hospital charges
Parameter (95% CI)P valueParameter (95% CI)P valueParameter (95% CI)P valueParameter (95% CI)P value
Any educational visit −18.84 (−23.21 to −14.46) <0.001 −$21,710 (−$26,974 to −$16,446) <0.001 −9.18 (−13.33 to −5.02) <0.001 −$11,571 (−$16,765 to −$6,377) <0.001 
Any nutritionist visit −22.49 (−27.66 to −17.33) <0.001 −$30,730 (−$36,943 to −$24,517) <0.001 −10.72 (−15.58 to −5.86) <0.001 −$13,872 (−$19,945 to −$7,799) <0.001 
Any diabetes class −10.51 (−16.93 to 4.09) 0.001 −$5,778 (−$13,505 to $1,949) 0.14 −5.49 (−11.47 to 0.49) 0.07 −$6,913 (−$14,386 to $559) 0.07 
Number of educational visits (per visit) −2.26 (−3.09 to −1.43) <0.001 −$2,545 (−$3,544 to −$1,546) <0.001 −1.12 (−1.90 to −0.33) 0.01 −$1,793 (−$2,770 to −$817) <0.001 
Number of nutritionist visits (per visit) −9.46 (−12.11 to −6.82) <0.001 −$13,043 (−$16,222 to −$9,864) <0.001 −4.70 (−7.16 to −2.23) <0.001 −$6,503 (−$9,586 to −$3,421) <0.001 
Number of diabetes classes (per class) −1.75 (−2.73 to −0.77) <0.001 −$1,467 (−$2,646 to −$289) 0.01 −0.82 (−1.71 to 0.10) 0.08 −$1,396 (−$2,538 to −$254) 0.02 
Educational variable (each educational variable was modeled separately)Unadjusted models
Adjusted models*
Hospitalizations per 100 person-yearsHospital charges
Hospitalizations per 100 person-years
Hospital charges
Parameter (95% CI)P valueParameter (95% CI)P valueParameter (95% CI)P valueParameter (95% CI)P value
Any educational visit −18.84 (−23.21 to −14.46) <0.001 −$21,710 (−$26,974 to −$16,446) <0.001 −9.18 (−13.33 to −5.02) <0.001 −$11,571 (−$16,765 to −$6,377) <0.001 
Any nutritionist visit −22.49 (−27.66 to −17.33) <0.001 −$30,730 (−$36,943 to −$24,517) <0.001 −10.72 (−15.58 to −5.86) <0.001 −$13,872 (−$19,945 to −$7,799) <0.001 
Any diabetes class −10.51 (−16.93 to 4.09) 0.001 −$5,778 (−$13,505 to $1,949) 0.14 −5.49 (−11.47 to 0.49) 0.07 −$6,913 (−$14,386 to $559) 0.07 
Number of educational visits (per visit) −2.26 (−3.09 to −1.43) <0.001 −$2,545 (−$3,544 to −$1,546) <0.001 −1.12 (−1.90 to −0.33) 0.01 −$1,793 (−$2,770 to −$817) <0.001 
Number of nutritionist visits (per visit) −9.46 (−12.11 to −6.82) <0.001 −$13,043 (−$16,222 to −$9,864) <0.001 −4.70 (−7.16 to −2.23) <0.001 −$6,503 (−$9,586 to −$3,421) <0.001 
Number of diabetes classes (per class) −1.75 (−2.73 to −0.77) <0.001 −$1,467 (−$2,646 to −$289) 0.01 −0.82 (−1.71 to 0.10) 0.08 −$1,396 (−$2,538 to −$254) 0.02 
*

Adjusted for demographic variables and baseline hospitalizations, heart disease, kidney disease, stroke, lower-extremity ulcers, neuropathy, eye disease, hypertension, and number of other primary care visits.

Include dietitian visits, diabetes classes, and health education visits.

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