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Table 1—

Characteristics of youth with type 2 diabetes and nondiabetic control youth

VariablesType 2 diabetesControlP value
n 79 79  
Age (years) 15.7 ± 2.8 14.4 ± 2.8 0.003 
Sex (% male) 29.1 38.9 0.1 
Race/Ethnicity (%)   <0.0001 
    Non-Hispanic white 27.9 55.8  
    African-American 54.4 27.9  
    Hispanic 17.7 16.3  
BMI (kg/m234.7 ± 7.5 24.0 ± 6.8 <0.0001 
BMI Z score 2.1 ± 0.7 0.8 ± 1.1 <0.0001 
Exposure to maternal diabetes in utero (% yes) 30.4 6.3 <0.0001 
Exposure to maternal obesity (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) in utero (% yes) 57.0 27.4 <0.0001 
Maternal education (%)   0.009 
    Less than high school 13.9 4.7  
    High school and more 86.1 94.2  
Household income (%)   <0.0001 
    <$25,000 49.4 21.6  
    >$25,000 50.6 77.9  
Maternal smoking during pregnancy (% yes) 11.4 11.1 0.9 
Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy (% yes) 1.27 14.7 0.001 
Birth weight (g) 3,218 ± 654 3,288 ± 620 0.4 
Breast-feeding (% yes) 30.4 65.8 <0.0001 
Paternal history of diabetes (% yes) 29.1 6.3 <0.0001 
VariablesType 2 diabetesControlP value
n 79 79  
Age (years) 15.7 ± 2.8 14.4 ± 2.8 0.003 
Sex (% male) 29.1 38.9 0.1 
Race/Ethnicity (%)   <0.0001 
    Non-Hispanic white 27.9 55.8  
    African-American 54.4 27.9  
    Hispanic 17.7 16.3  
BMI (kg/m234.7 ± 7.5 24.0 ± 6.8 <0.0001 
BMI Z score 2.1 ± 0.7 0.8 ± 1.1 <0.0001 
Exposure to maternal diabetes in utero (% yes) 30.4 6.3 <0.0001 
Exposure to maternal obesity (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) in utero (% yes) 57.0 27.4 <0.0001 
Maternal education (%)   0.009 
    Less than high school 13.9 4.7  
    High school and more 86.1 94.2  
Household income (%)   <0.0001 
    <$25,000 49.4 21.6  
    >$25,000 50.6 77.9  
Maternal smoking during pregnancy (% yes) 11.4 11.1 0.9 
Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy (% yes) 1.27 14.7 0.001 
Birth weight (g) 3,218 ± 654 3,288 ± 620 0.4 
Breast-feeding (% yes) 30.4 65.8 <0.0001 
Paternal history of diabetes (% yes) 29.1 6.3 <0.0001 

Data are means ± SD unless indicated otherwise.

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