Skip to Main Content
Table 1—

Fully adjusted HRs (95% CI) for the onset of a new foot ulcer or LEA

VariableFoot ulcerLEA
Prior foot ulcer 7.85 (7.16–8.62)* 13.06 (10.55–16.18)* 
Prior amputation 8.00 (6.74–9.49)* 31.03 (23.93–40.23)* 
Smoking   
    0 per day Ref Ref 
    1–15 per day 0.94 (0.84–1.05) 1.16 (0.88–1.53) 
    >15 per day 0.97 (0.85–1.11) 0.62 (0.40–0.96) 
Age by category   
    35–40 years Ref Ref 
    >40–50 years 1.18 (0.92–1.49) 1.41 (0.71–2.89) 
    >50–60 years 1.26 (1.02–1.56) 1.81 (0.98–3.36) 
    >60–70 years 1.56 (1.27–1.92) 2.12 (1.16–3.85) 
    >70 years 2.42 (1.98–2.96)* 2.80 (1.56–5.03)* 
A1C by category   
    ≤7.0% Ref Ref 
    >7.0% and ≤9.0% 1.15 (1.05–1.26) 1.80 (1.38–2.35) 
    >9.0% 1.66 (1.50–1.83)* 2.77 (2.10–3.64)* 
Sex (women Ref) 0.98 (0.91–1.06) 0.50 (0.40–0.62)* 
History of lower-extremity PAD 3.80 (3.51–4.12)* 12.00 (9.74–14.77)* 
Loss of neurosensation 2.17 (1.88–2.51)* 2.34 (1.62,3.38)* 
History of hypertension 1.17 (1.08,1.27)* 1.42 (1.15–1.75)* 
History of myocardial ischemia 1.46 (1.35–1.59)* 1.63 (1.31–2.02)* 
Duration of diabetes (years) 1.03 (1.03–1.04) 1.04 (1.04–1.05) 
Mean arterial pressure 0.99 (0.99–1.00) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 
ESRD 6.12 (3.54–10.55)* 15.66 (6.48–37.86)* 
VariableFoot ulcerLEA
Prior foot ulcer 7.85 (7.16–8.62)* 13.06 (10.55–16.18)* 
Prior amputation 8.00 (6.74–9.49)* 31.03 (23.93–40.23)* 
Smoking   
    0 per day Ref Ref 
    1–15 per day 0.94 (0.84–1.05) 1.16 (0.88–1.53) 
    >15 per day 0.97 (0.85–1.11) 0.62 (0.40–0.96) 
Age by category   
    35–40 years Ref Ref 
    >40–50 years 1.18 (0.92–1.49) 1.41 (0.71–2.89) 
    >50–60 years 1.26 (1.02–1.56) 1.81 (0.98–3.36) 
    >60–70 years 1.56 (1.27–1.92) 2.12 (1.16–3.85) 
    >70 years 2.42 (1.98–2.96)* 2.80 (1.56–5.03)* 
A1C by category   
    ≤7.0% Ref Ref 
    >7.0% and ≤9.0% 1.15 (1.05–1.26) 1.80 (1.38–2.35) 
    >9.0% 1.66 (1.50–1.83)* 2.77 (2.10–3.64)* 
Sex (women Ref) 0.98 (0.91–1.06) 0.50 (0.40–0.62)* 
History of lower-extremity PAD 3.80 (3.51–4.12)* 12.00 (9.74–14.77)* 
Loss of neurosensation 2.17 (1.88–2.51)* 2.34 (1.62,3.38)* 
History of hypertension 1.17 (1.08,1.27)* 1.42 (1.15–1.75)* 
History of myocardial ischemia 1.46 (1.35–1.59)* 1.63 (1.31–2.02)* 
Duration of diabetes (years) 1.03 (1.03–1.04) 1.04 (1.04–1.05) 
Mean arterial pressure 0.99 (0.99–1.00) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 
ESRD 6.12 (3.54–10.55)* 15.66 (6.48–37.86)* 

P value, compared with reference (Ref)or, if categories are presented, as test for trend,

*

P ≤ 0.001.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal