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Table 3—

Variables related to the development of microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes by multinominal logistic regression analysis

VariablesAny microvascular complication
Retinopathy
Neuropathy
(Micro)albuminuria
POR (95% CI)POR (95% CIPOR (95% CI)POR (95% CI)
Skin AF <0.001 2.02 (1.45–2.81) 0.32 1.21 (0.83–1.74) 0.026 1.50 (1.05–2.14) <0.001 1.88 (1.36–2.61) 
Sex 0.02 0.55 (0.33–0.90) 0.91 0.97 (0.53–1.75) 0.78 1.09 (0.61–1.93) 0.001 0.42 (0.25–0.71) 
A1C 0.004 1.30 (1.09–1.55) 0.13 1.18 (0.95–1.45) 0.87 1.02 (0.82–1.26) 0.034 1.21 (1.01–1.44) 
Diabetes duration 0.66 1.01 (0.96–1.06) <0.001 1.10 (1.06–1.15) 0.032 1.04 (1.00–1.08) 0.04 0.95 (0.90–0.997) 
Smoking 0.07 0.56 (0.29–1.05) 0.09 0.48 (0.21–1.11) 0.011 0.29 (0.11–0.75) 0.96 1.02 (0.56–1.85) 
Systolic blood pressure 0.43 1.01 (0.99–1.02) 0.39 1.01 (0.99–1.02) 0.49 1.01 (0.99–1.02) 0.18 1.01 (0.996–1.02) 
LDL cholesterol 0.48 1.09 (0.85–1.40) 0.66 0.93 (0.69–1.27) 0.35 0.87 (0.64–1.17) 0.30 1.15 (0.89–1.49) 
HDL cholesterol 0.26 0.62 (0.27–1.43) 0.36 0.63 (0.23–1.70) 0.081 0.41 (0.15–1.12) 0.40 0.38 (0.15–0.96) 
Triglycerides 0.54 0.94 (0.78–1.14) 0.41 0.91 (0.72–1.15) 0.85 0.98 (0.79–1.22) 0.19 0.87 (0.71–1.07) 
BMI 0.27 1.03 (0.98–1.08) 0.33 1.03 (0.97–1.09) 0.56 0.98 (0.93–1.04) 0.39 1.02 (0.97–1.08) 
VariablesAny microvascular complication
Retinopathy
Neuropathy
(Micro)albuminuria
POR (95% CI)POR (95% CIPOR (95% CI)POR (95% CI)
Skin AF <0.001 2.02 (1.45–2.81) 0.32 1.21 (0.83–1.74) 0.026 1.50 (1.05–2.14) <0.001 1.88 (1.36–2.61) 
Sex 0.02 0.55 (0.33–0.90) 0.91 0.97 (0.53–1.75) 0.78 1.09 (0.61–1.93) 0.001 0.42 (0.25–0.71) 
A1C 0.004 1.30 (1.09–1.55) 0.13 1.18 (0.95–1.45) 0.87 1.02 (0.82–1.26) 0.034 1.21 (1.01–1.44) 
Diabetes duration 0.66 1.01 (0.96–1.06) <0.001 1.10 (1.06–1.15) 0.032 1.04 (1.00–1.08) 0.04 0.95 (0.90–0.997) 
Smoking 0.07 0.56 (0.29–1.05) 0.09 0.48 (0.21–1.11) 0.011 0.29 (0.11–0.75) 0.96 1.02 (0.56–1.85) 
Systolic blood pressure 0.43 1.01 (0.99–1.02) 0.39 1.01 (0.99–1.02) 0.49 1.01 (0.99–1.02) 0.18 1.01 (0.996–1.02) 
LDL cholesterol 0.48 1.09 (0.85–1.40) 0.66 0.93 (0.69–1.27) 0.35 0.87 (0.64–1.17) 0.30 1.15 (0.89–1.49) 
HDL cholesterol 0.26 0.62 (0.27–1.43) 0.36 0.63 (0.23–1.70) 0.081 0.41 (0.15–1.12) 0.40 0.38 (0.15–0.96) 
Triglycerides 0.54 0.94 (0.78–1.14) 0.41 0.91 (0.72–1.15) 0.85 0.98 (0.79–1.22) 0.19 0.87 (0.71–1.07) 
BMI 0.27 1.03 (0.98–1.08) 0.33 1.03 (0.97–1.09) 0.56 0.98 (0.93–1.04) 0.39 1.02 (0.97–1.08) 

AF, autofluorescence measured with the autofluorescence reader (see research design and methods).

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