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Table 2—

Multivariate model of the incidence of type 2 diabetes in relation to baseline of daily alcohol consumption and liver enzymes*

nCase [n (%)]Multiple-adjusted OR (95% CI)P
Model 1 variables     
    GGT (IU/l)     
Tertile 1 (5–29) 2,910 204 (7.0) 1.00  
Tertile 2 (30–58) 2,817 276 (9.8) 1.11 (0.89–1.38) 0.361 
Tertile 3 (59–1,357) 2,849 398 (14.0) 1.64 (1.31–2.05) <0.001 
    Daily alcohol consumption     
Nondrinkers 1,334 142 (10.6) 1.00  
Light drinkers 1,657 164 (9.9) 0.91 (0.69–1.19) 0.475 
Moderate drinkers 3,002 291 (9.7) 0.65 (0.50–0.83) 0.001 
Heavy drinkers 2,583 281 (10.9) 0.66 (0.50–0.86) 0.002 
Model 2 variables     
    ALT (IU/l)     
Tertile 1 (3–19) 2,967 193 (6.5) 1.00  
Tertile 2 (20–30) 2,804 272 (9.7) 1.21 (0.97–1.50) 0.088 
Tertile 3 (31–271) 2,805 413 (14.7) 1.63 (1.31–2.02) <0.001 
    Daily alcohol consumption     
Nondrinkers 1,334 142 (10.6) 1.00  
Light drinkers 1,657 164 (9.9) 0.95 (0.72–1.25) 0.727 
Moderate drinkers 3,002 291 (9.7) 0.76 (0.59–0.97) 0.025 
Heavy drinkers 2,583 281 (10.9) 0.82 (0.64–1.05) 0.107 
Model 3 variables     
    AST (IU/l)     
Tertile 1 (8–20) 3,139 265 (8.4) 1.00  
Tertile 2 (21–26) 2,777 247 (8.9) 1.02 (0.83–1.25) 0.882 
Tertile 3 (27–284) 2,660 366 (13.8) 1.41 (1.15–1.72) 0.001 
    Daily alcohol consumption     
Nondrinkers 1,334 142 (10.6) 1.00  
Light drinkers 1,657 164 (9.9) 0.94 (0.71–1.23) 0.645 
Moderate drinkers 3,002 291 (9.7) 0.73 (0.57–0.93) 0.011 
Heavy drinkers 2,583 281 (10.9) 0.78 (0.60–1.00) 0.046 
Model 4 variables     
    GGT (IU/l)     
Tertile 1 (5–29) 2,910 204 (7.0) 1.00  
Tertile 2 (30–58) 2,817 276 (9.8) 1.03 (0.82–1.29) 0.824 
Tertile 3 (59–1357) 2,849 398 (14.0) 1.39 (1.08–1.79) 0.010 
    ALT (IU/l)     
Tertile 1 (3–19) 2,967 193 (6.5) 1.00  
Tertile 2 (20–30) 2,804 272 (9.7) 1.13 (0.90–1.41) 0.302 
Tertile 3 (31–271) 2,805 413 (14.7) 1.40 (1.10–1.78) 0.006 
    Daily alcohol consumption     
Nondrinkers 1,334 142 (10.6) 1.00  
Light drinkers 1,657 164 (9.9) 0.93 (0.70–1.22) 0.582 
Moderate drinkers 3,002 291 (9.7) 0.68 (0.53–0.88) 0.003 
Heavy drinkers 2,583 281 (10.9) 0.70 (0.53–0.92) 0.010 
Model 5 variables     
    GGT (IU/l)     
Tertile 1 (5–29) 2,910 204 (7.0) 1.00  
Tertile 2 (30–58) 2,817 276 (9.8) 1.08 (0.86–1.35) 0.490 
Tertile 3 (59–1357) 2,849 398 (14.0) 1.51 (1.18–1.94) 0.001 
    AST (IU/l)     
Tertile 1 (8–20) 3,139 265 (8.4) 1.00  
Tertile 2 (21–26) 2,777 247 (8.9) 0.94 (0.76–1.17) 0.599 
Tertile 3 (27–284) 2,660 366 (13.8) 1.19 (0.95–1.48) 0.127 
    Daily alcohol consumption     
Nondrinkers 1,334 142 (10.6) 1.00  
Light drinkers 1,657 164 (9.9) 0.91 (0.69–1.20) 0.507 
Moderate drinkers 3,002 291 (9.7) 0.66 (0.51–0.84) 0.001 
Heavy drinkers 2,583 281 (10.9) 0.66 (0.51–0.87) 0.002 
Model 6 variables     
    ALT (IU/l)     
Tertile 1 (3–19) 2,967 193 (6.5) 1.00  
Tertile 2 (20–30) 2,804 272 (9.7) 1.24 (0.98–1.56) 0.077 
Tertile 3 (31–271) 2,805 413 (14.7) 1.58 (1.19–2.11) 0.002 
    AST (IU/l)     
Tertile 1 (8–20) 3,139 265 (8.4) 1.00  
Tertile 2 (21–26) 2,777 247 (8.9) 0.87 (0.69–1.10) 0.244 
Tertile 3 (27–284) 2,660 366 (13.8) 1.05 (0.80–1.37) 0.730 
    Daily alcohol consumption     
Nondrinkers 1,334 142 (10.6) 1.00  
Light drinkers 1,657 164 (9.9) 0.95 (0.72–1.25) 0.725 
Moderate drinkers 3,002 291 (9.7) 0.75 (0.59–0.96) 0.024 
Heavy drinkers 2,583 281 (10.9) 0.81 (0.63–1.04) 0.102 
Model 7 variables     
    GGT (IU/l)     
Tertile 1 (5–29) 2,910 204 (7.0) 1.00  
Tertile 2 (30–58) 2,817 276 (9.8) 1.04 (0.82–1.30) 0.767 
Tertile 3 (59–1357) 2,849 398 (14.0) 1.40 (1.08–1.81) 0.011 
    ALT (IU/l)     
Tertile 1 (3–19) 2,967 193 (6.5) 1.00  
Tertile 2 (20–30) 2,804 272 (9.7) 1.17 (0.92–1.49) 0.189 
Tertile 3 (31–271) 2,805 413 (14.7) 1.44 (1.07–1.94) 0.016 
    AST (IU/l)     
Tertile 1 (8–20) 3,139 265 (8.4) 1.00  
Tertile 2 (21–26) 2,777 247 (8.9) 0.85 (0.67–1.07) 0.167 
Tertile 3 (27–284) 2,660 366 (13.8) 0.97 (0.73–1.27) 0.804 
    Daily alcohol consumption     
Nondrinkers 1,334 142 (10.6) 1.00  
Light drinkers 1,657 164 (9.9) 0.93 (0.71–1.22) 0.590 
Moderate drinkers 3,002 291 (9.7) 0.69 (0.53–0.89) 0.004 
Heavy drinkers 2,583 281 (10.9) 0.71 (0.54–0.93) 0.012 
nCase [n (%)]Multiple-adjusted OR (95% CI)P
Model 1 variables     
    GGT (IU/l)     
Tertile 1 (5–29) 2,910 204 (7.0) 1.00  
Tertile 2 (30–58) 2,817 276 (9.8) 1.11 (0.89–1.38) 0.361 
Tertile 3 (59–1,357) 2,849 398 (14.0) 1.64 (1.31–2.05) <0.001 
    Daily alcohol consumption     
Nondrinkers 1,334 142 (10.6) 1.00  
Light drinkers 1,657 164 (9.9) 0.91 (0.69–1.19) 0.475 
Moderate drinkers 3,002 291 (9.7) 0.65 (0.50–0.83) 0.001 
Heavy drinkers 2,583 281 (10.9) 0.66 (0.50–0.86) 0.002 
Model 2 variables     
    ALT (IU/l)     
Tertile 1 (3–19) 2,967 193 (6.5) 1.00  
Tertile 2 (20–30) 2,804 272 (9.7) 1.21 (0.97–1.50) 0.088 
Tertile 3 (31–271) 2,805 413 (14.7) 1.63 (1.31–2.02) <0.001 
    Daily alcohol consumption     
Nondrinkers 1,334 142 (10.6) 1.00  
Light drinkers 1,657 164 (9.9) 0.95 (0.72–1.25) 0.727 
Moderate drinkers 3,002 291 (9.7) 0.76 (0.59–0.97) 0.025 
Heavy drinkers 2,583 281 (10.9) 0.82 (0.64–1.05) 0.107 
Model 3 variables     
    AST (IU/l)     
Tertile 1 (8–20) 3,139 265 (8.4) 1.00  
Tertile 2 (21–26) 2,777 247 (8.9) 1.02 (0.83–1.25) 0.882 
Tertile 3 (27–284) 2,660 366 (13.8) 1.41 (1.15–1.72) 0.001 
    Daily alcohol consumption     
Nondrinkers 1,334 142 (10.6) 1.00  
Light drinkers 1,657 164 (9.9) 0.94 (0.71–1.23) 0.645 
Moderate drinkers 3,002 291 (9.7) 0.73 (0.57–0.93) 0.011 
Heavy drinkers 2,583 281 (10.9) 0.78 (0.60–1.00) 0.046 
Model 4 variables     
    GGT (IU/l)     
Tertile 1 (5–29) 2,910 204 (7.0) 1.00  
Tertile 2 (30–58) 2,817 276 (9.8) 1.03 (0.82–1.29) 0.824 
Tertile 3 (59–1357) 2,849 398 (14.0) 1.39 (1.08–1.79) 0.010 
    ALT (IU/l)     
Tertile 1 (3–19) 2,967 193 (6.5) 1.00  
Tertile 2 (20–30) 2,804 272 (9.7) 1.13 (0.90–1.41) 0.302 
Tertile 3 (31–271) 2,805 413 (14.7) 1.40 (1.10–1.78) 0.006 
    Daily alcohol consumption     
Nondrinkers 1,334 142 (10.6) 1.00  
Light drinkers 1,657 164 (9.9) 0.93 (0.70–1.22) 0.582 
Moderate drinkers 3,002 291 (9.7) 0.68 (0.53–0.88) 0.003 
Heavy drinkers 2,583 281 (10.9) 0.70 (0.53–0.92) 0.010 
Model 5 variables     
    GGT (IU/l)     
Tertile 1 (5–29) 2,910 204 (7.0) 1.00  
Tertile 2 (30–58) 2,817 276 (9.8) 1.08 (0.86–1.35) 0.490 
Tertile 3 (59–1357) 2,849 398 (14.0) 1.51 (1.18–1.94) 0.001 
    AST (IU/l)     
Tertile 1 (8–20) 3,139 265 (8.4) 1.00  
Tertile 2 (21–26) 2,777 247 (8.9) 0.94 (0.76–1.17) 0.599 
Tertile 3 (27–284) 2,660 366 (13.8) 1.19 (0.95–1.48) 0.127 
    Daily alcohol consumption     
Nondrinkers 1,334 142 (10.6) 1.00  
Light drinkers 1,657 164 (9.9) 0.91 (0.69–1.20) 0.507 
Moderate drinkers 3,002 291 (9.7) 0.66 (0.51–0.84) 0.001 
Heavy drinkers 2,583 281 (10.9) 0.66 (0.51–0.87) 0.002 
Model 6 variables     
    ALT (IU/l)     
Tertile 1 (3–19) 2,967 193 (6.5) 1.00  
Tertile 2 (20–30) 2,804 272 (9.7) 1.24 (0.98–1.56) 0.077 
Tertile 3 (31–271) 2,805 413 (14.7) 1.58 (1.19–2.11) 0.002 
    AST (IU/l)     
Tertile 1 (8–20) 3,139 265 (8.4) 1.00  
Tertile 2 (21–26) 2,777 247 (8.9) 0.87 (0.69–1.10) 0.244 
Tertile 3 (27–284) 2,660 366 (13.8) 1.05 (0.80–1.37) 0.730 
    Daily alcohol consumption     
Nondrinkers 1,334 142 (10.6) 1.00  
Light drinkers 1,657 164 (9.9) 0.95 (0.72–1.25) 0.725 
Moderate drinkers 3,002 291 (9.7) 0.75 (0.59–0.96) 0.024 
Heavy drinkers 2,583 281 (10.9) 0.81 (0.63–1.04) 0.102 
Model 7 variables     
    GGT (IU/l)     
Tertile 1 (5–29) 2,910 204 (7.0) 1.00  
Tertile 2 (30–58) 2,817 276 (9.8) 1.04 (0.82–1.30) 0.767 
Tertile 3 (59–1357) 2,849 398 (14.0) 1.40 (1.08–1.81) 0.011 
    ALT (IU/l)     
Tertile 1 (3–19) 2,967 193 (6.5) 1.00  
Tertile 2 (20–30) 2,804 272 (9.7) 1.17 (0.92–1.49) 0.189 
Tertile 3 (31–271) 2,805 413 (14.7) 1.44 (1.07–1.94) 0.016 
    AST (IU/l)     
Tertile 1 (8–20) 3,139 265 (8.4) 1.00  
Tertile 2 (21–26) 2,777 247 (8.9) 0.85 (0.67–1.07) 0.167 
Tertile 3 (27–284) 2,660 366 (13.8) 0.97 (0.73–1.27) 0.804 
    Daily alcohol consumption     
Nondrinkers 1,334 142 (10.6) 1.00  
Light drinkers 1,657 164 (9.9) 0.93 (0.71–1.22) 0.590 
Moderate drinkers 3,002 291 (9.7) 0.69 (0.53–0.89) 0.004 
Heavy drinkers 2,583 281 (10.9) 0.71 (0.54–0.93) 0.012 
*

Adjusted for age (40–44, 45–49, and 50–55 years), BMI, FPG level (<100, 100–109, and 110–125 mg/dl), smoking habit (nonsmokers, past smokers, and current smokers), parental history of diabetes, walk to work (0–10, 11–20, and ≥21 min), and regular leisure-time physical activity.

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