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Table 3—

Multivariate ORs of the incidence of type 2 diabetes according to joint categories of daily alcohol consumption and liver enzymes*

NondrinkersDaily alcohol consumption
Light drinkersModerate drinkersHeavy drinkers
Model 1 GGT     
    Case/n (%)     
Tertile 1 63/796 (7.9) 64/841 (7.6) 50/872 (5.7) 27/401 (6.7) 
Tertile 2 52/402 (12.9) 59/541 (10.9) 102/1,072 (9.5) 63/802 (7.9) 
Tertile 3 27/136 (19.9) 41/275 (14.9) 139/1,058 (13.1) 191/1,380 (13.8) 
    OR (95% CI)     
Tertile 1 1.65 (1.07–2.52) 1.49 (0.97–2.29) 1.00 1.17 (0.69–2.01) 
Tertile 2 1.67 (1.05–2.67) 1.63 (1.04–2.54) 1.31 (0.88–1.94) 1.08 (0.71–1.66) 
Tertile 3 3.18 (1.75–5.76) 2.44 (1.47–4.04) 1.63 (1.12–2.39) 1.81 (1.26–2.60) 
Model 2 ALT     
    Case/n (%)     
Tertile 1 34/489 (7.0) 46/605 (7.6) 59/1,044 (5.7) 54/829 (6.5) 
Tertile 2 37/413 (9.0) 45/529 (8.5) 101/998 (10.1) 89/864 (10.3) 
Tertile 3 71/432 (16.4) 73/523 (14.0) 131/960 (13.6) 138/890 (15.5) 
    OR (95% CI)     
Tertile 1 1.69 (1.05–2.72) 1.77 (1.13–2.76) 1.00 1.16 (0.77–1.76) 
Tertile 2 1.75 (1.09–2.82) 1.47 (0.93–2.30) 1.54 (1.07–2.23) 1.47 (1.01–2.15) 
Tertile 3 2.37 (1.55–3.62) 2.31 (1.53–3.50) 1.83 (1.27–2.63) 2.09 (1.46–2.99) 
Model 3 AST     
    Case/n (%)     
Tertile 1 62/650 (9.5) 62/746 (8.3) 88/1,083 (8.1) 53/660 (8.0) 
Tertile 2 31/385 (8.1) 48/513 (9.4) 80/1,008 (7.9) 88/871 (10.1) 
Tertile 3 49/299 (16.4) 54/398 (13.6) 123/911 (13.5) 140/1,052 (13.3) 
    OR (95% CI)     
Tertile 1 1.71 (1.17–2.51) 1.29 (0.88–1.89) 1.00 0.95 (0.64–1.40) 
Tertile 2 0.98 (0.61–1.60) 1.39 (0.91–2.11) 1.03 (0.72–1.46) 1.27 (0.90–1.80) 
Tertile 3 2.02 (1.30–3.14) 1.83 (1.20–2.78) 1.48 (1.06–2.05) 1.48 (1.08–2.04) 
NondrinkersDaily alcohol consumption
Light drinkersModerate drinkersHeavy drinkers
Model 1 GGT     
    Case/n (%)     
Tertile 1 63/796 (7.9) 64/841 (7.6) 50/872 (5.7) 27/401 (6.7) 
Tertile 2 52/402 (12.9) 59/541 (10.9) 102/1,072 (9.5) 63/802 (7.9) 
Tertile 3 27/136 (19.9) 41/275 (14.9) 139/1,058 (13.1) 191/1,380 (13.8) 
    OR (95% CI)     
Tertile 1 1.65 (1.07–2.52) 1.49 (0.97–2.29) 1.00 1.17 (0.69–2.01) 
Tertile 2 1.67 (1.05–2.67) 1.63 (1.04–2.54) 1.31 (0.88–1.94) 1.08 (0.71–1.66) 
Tertile 3 3.18 (1.75–5.76) 2.44 (1.47–4.04) 1.63 (1.12–2.39) 1.81 (1.26–2.60) 
Model 2 ALT     
    Case/n (%)     
Tertile 1 34/489 (7.0) 46/605 (7.6) 59/1,044 (5.7) 54/829 (6.5) 
Tertile 2 37/413 (9.0) 45/529 (8.5) 101/998 (10.1) 89/864 (10.3) 
Tertile 3 71/432 (16.4) 73/523 (14.0) 131/960 (13.6) 138/890 (15.5) 
    OR (95% CI)     
Tertile 1 1.69 (1.05–2.72) 1.77 (1.13–2.76) 1.00 1.16 (0.77–1.76) 
Tertile 2 1.75 (1.09–2.82) 1.47 (0.93–2.30) 1.54 (1.07–2.23) 1.47 (1.01–2.15) 
Tertile 3 2.37 (1.55–3.62) 2.31 (1.53–3.50) 1.83 (1.27–2.63) 2.09 (1.46–2.99) 
Model 3 AST     
    Case/n (%)     
Tertile 1 62/650 (9.5) 62/746 (8.3) 88/1,083 (8.1) 53/660 (8.0) 
Tertile 2 31/385 (8.1) 48/513 (9.4) 80/1,008 (7.9) 88/871 (10.1) 
Tertile 3 49/299 (16.4) 54/398 (13.6) 123/911 (13.5) 140/1,052 (13.3) 
    OR (95% CI)     
Tertile 1 1.71 (1.17–2.51) 1.29 (0.88–1.89) 1.00 0.95 (0.64–1.40) 
Tertile 2 0.98 (0.61–1.60) 1.39 (0.91–2.11) 1.03 (0.72–1.46) 1.27 (0.90–1.80) 
Tertile 3 2.02 (1.30–3.14) 1.83 (1.20–2.78) 1.48 (1.06–2.05) 1.48 (1.08–2.04) 
*

Adjusted for age (40–44, 45–49, and 50–55 years), BMI, FPG level (<100, 100–109, and 110–125 mg/dl), smoking habit (nonsmokers, past smokers, and current smokers), parental history of diabetes, walk to work (0–10, 11–20, and ≥21 min), and regular leisure-time physical activity.

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